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Table 3 Estimates of differences-in-differences user fee effects on location of birth.

From: An assessment of the effect of user fee policy reform on facility-based deliveries in rural Zambia

Variable Home Private Public
Coefficient Std. error Coefficient Std. error Coefficient Std. error
Null model: without controls
 Delivery after abolition of fees 0.114 0.138 −0.461 0.357 −0.072 0.131
 Lives in one of the 54 districts with policy reform 1.485*** 0.196 0.756* 0.458 −1.356*** 0.183
 DID estimator −0.055 0.171 0.486 0.442 0.011 0.164
Model 1: with individual level controls
 Delivery after abolition of fees −0.091 0.222 −0.537 0.540 0.216 0.206
 Lives in one of the 54 districts with policy reform −0.053 0.198 0.872 0.701 0.000 0.204
 DID estimator 0.117 0.261 1.534** 0.660 −0.321 0.245
Model 2: with individual and community level controls
 Delivery after abolition of fees −0.090 0.224 −0.681 0.556 0.226 0.208
 Lives in one of the 54 districts with policy reform −0.131 0.214 0.982 0.808 0.203 0.220
 DID estimator 0.125 0.263 1.575** 0.671 −0.337 0.247
  1. * Significant difference at 0.05
  2. ** Significant difference at 0.01
  3. *** Significant difference at 0.001