Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Summary of DG gene structures from species representative of all the animal groups in which a DG gene was identified

From: An evaluation of the evolution of the gene structure of dystroglycan

Metazoan main taxa Species Exon1 (preATG exon) (bp) Intron1 (preATG intron) (bp) Exon2 (ATG exon) (bp) Intron2 (IG1-intron) (bp) Exon3 (stop codon & 3′UTR) (bp) Gene accession code Code name Notes
Chordata (mammals)
 H. sapiens 302 39,985 401 19,977 4819 ENSG00000173402 >Hs  
 M. musculus 139 45,369 398 8351 3707 ENSMUSG00000039952 >Mm  
 C.l.familiaris 375d 48,846 383 16,520 4968 ENSCAFG00000011207 >Clf 1 add. preATG exon–intr.
 O. anatinus 161 58,270 398 30,785 5789 ENSOANG00000013307 >Oa  
 D. novemcinctus 203 62,147 400 22,513 2403a ENSDNOG00000016917 >Dn  
Chordata (aves)
 G. gallus h h 317 8464 2409 ENSGALG00000027710 >Gg  
 F. albicollis 175 34,691 410 12,789 2740 ENSFALG00000009006 >Fa  
Chordata (reptiles)
 A. carolinensis 392 56,285 403 26,079 7196 ENSACAG00000007264 >Ac  
 P. sinensis h h 380 25,784 6793 ENSPSIG00000016851 >Ps  
Chordata (amphibia)
 X. tropicalis 125 19,428 354 8686 2917 ENSXETG00000005928 >Xt  
Chordata (teleostei)
 D. rerio 169 39,769 528 14,466 2899 ENSDARG00000016153 >Dr  
 G. morhua h h 345 1126 2310a ENSGMOG00000017787 >Gm1  
 X. maculatus 595 8826 566 2800 3850 ENSXMAG00000015708 >Xm1  
 T. rubripes h h 366 818 2307a ENSTRUG00000007345 >Tr1  
Chordata (chondrichthyes)
 C. milii h h 276b 11,246 2373a KI635869.1 (Elephant Shark Genome Project@IMCB) >Cmi  
Chordata (cyclostomata)
 P. marinus 172 24,308 399 1218 2218a ENSPMAG00000000367 >Pm1  
Urochordata
 C. intestinalis h h 348 6249 3703 gene 293,437 (Metazome) >Ci 4 add. 3′ introns
Cephalochordata
 B. floridae h h 708b 10,023 1653a fgenesh2_pg.scaffold_27000085 (Metazome) >Bf 2 add. large 5′ introns
Hemichordata
 S. kowalevskii 161 5069 309 7194 5506 Sakowv30014893 m.g (Metazome) >Sk  
Echinodermata
 S. purpuratus h h 300 8426 2373a LOC581503 (Metazome) >Spu  
Arthropoda (insecta)
 D. melanogaster 437 8235 322 284e 5774 FBgn0034072 (EnsemblMetazoa) >Dm 12 add. 3′ introns
 T. castaneum h h 192b 46 3153a LOC663372 (Metazome) >Tc 4 add. 3′ introns
Arthropoda (crustacea)
 D. pulex h h 723 341 2956 DAPPUDRAFT 300,674 (EnsemblMetazoa) >Dpu 3 add. 3′ introns
Arthropoda (chelicerata)
 I. scapularis h h 111b 7852 2397a (2796)a,f ISCW015049 (EnsemblMetazoa) >Is 2 add. 3′ intronsg
Mollusca (cephalopoda)
 O. bimaculoides 561 14,288 1383 8418 2310a Ocbimv22032669 m.g (Metazome) >Ob  
Mollusca (bivalvia)
 C. gigas h h 231 3133 2286a CGI_10020032 (EnsemblMetazoa) >Cg  
Mollusca (gastropoda)
 L. gigantea h h 137c 3043 2185a LgGsHFWreduced.7288 (Metazome) >Lg  
Annelida (sedentaria)
 C. teleta h h 210 48 3408 CapteG183589 (Ensembl/Metazoa) >Ct  
Annelida (clitellata)
 H. robusta h h 186 276 2602 HelroG188507 (EnsemblMetazoa) >Hr  
Nematode (chromadorea)
 C. elegans 89 5376 229 328 2236 WBGene00000961 (Metazome) >Ce 3 add. 3′ introns
Nematode (secernentea)
 C. remanei h h 216 319 1653 CRE07443 (EnsemblMetazoa) >Cr 3 add. 3′ introns
Cnidaria (hydrozoa)
 H. magnipapillata h h 210b 1751 2189 Hydra_232607 (Metazome) >Hm 1 add. 3′ S6 intron
Cnidaria (anthozoa)
 N. vectensis h h 162b 2567 5553a estExt_fgenesh1_pg.C_1310045 (JGI) >Nv 1 add. 3′ S6 intron
Placozoa
 T. adhaerens h h 114b 320 2559a TriadG60041 (EnsemblMetazoa) >Ta 1 add. 5′ and 1 add. 3′introns
Porifera (demospongiae)
 A.queenslandica h h 170b 47 4254a Aqu1.217766 (EnsemblMetazoa) >Aq  
  1. For species in which additional introns are present, either upstream (5′) or downstream (3′) of the IG1-intron (intron2), these introns are reported in the Notes column. In these species, the value reported for E1 and/or E3 refers to the combined size originating from all the resulting exons
  2. aThe genome-annotated sequence ends at the stop codon
  3. bAdditional nucleotides 5′ to the initial ATG codon may be missing
  4. cThe annotated gene sequence starts slightly downstream of the ATG codon
  5. dAn additional pre-ATG exon is reported > 100 Kb upstream
  6. eDue to divergence, D. melanogaster DG lacks an IG1 domain however the IG1-intron is located in a similar 5′ position to other species that contain the IG1 domain
  7. fA recent study has demonstrated that a gene region that was previously considered to code for an intronic sequence is an exon, giving rise to a predicted protein product of 968 aa instead of 835 aa [25]
  8. gThe first additional intron is also present within the IG1 domain
  9. hNot present or not annotated. See Fig. 1 for schematic details