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Table 1 Summary of study characteristics including demographics and outcome measures

From: Does a PBL-based medical curriculum predispose training in specific career paths? A systematic review of the literature

Reference (year) Country and school Study design Total number of participants Programs compared (number in each group) Level of training (graduation years) Other relevant demographics/adjustment for confounding Outcome measures
Ford et al. [4] Canada. All English-language schools Retrospective cohort 14,370 PBL vs non-PBLa (6391/7979) Graduates (1993–2004) None Pathology residency choice
Kaufman et al. [14] USA. University of New Mexico School of Medicine Retrospective cohort 511 Primary care (PBL) vs traditional curriculum (140/379) Final year medical students None Future specialty choice
Matsui et al. [9] Japan. Tokyo Women’s Medical University Retrospective cohort 468 PBL vs Non-PBL curriculum (248/220) Graduates (1989–2003) All female, aged between 25–53 Specialty choice
Mennin et al. [17] USA. University of New Mexico School of Medicine Retrospective Cohort 120 Conventional vs primary care (PBL) curriculum (87/33) Graduates (1983–1986) None Family practice specialty
Moore et al. [15] USA. Harvard Medical School Randomised controlled trial 297 New pathway (PBL) vs traditional curriculum (62/235) Graduates (1989–1990) No significant difference between groups in terms of age or gender Residency choice
Moore-west et al. [16] USA. University of New Mexico School of Medicine Cohort study 38 New pathway (PBL) vs traditional curriculum (19/19) Graduates (1983–1984) None Residency choice
Pearson et al. [18] Australia. University of Newcastle and University of Sydney Retrospective cohort 2469 PBL vs Non-PBLb (538/1931) Graduates (1983–1998) Matched for graduation year, age and gender Specialty choice
Peters et al. [10] USA. Harvard Medical School Randomised Controlled Trial 100 New Pathway (PBL) vs traditional curriculum (50/50) Graduates (1989–1990) Matched for age & gender Specialty choice
Tolnai et al. [20] Canada. McMaster University and University of Ottawa Retrospective Cohort 342 PBL vs Non-PBLb (156/186) Graduates (1974–1980) None Family practice specialty
Wesnes et al. [11] Norway. all Norwegian Medical Schools Cross-sectional 1770 PBL vs Non-PBLb Graduates (2002–2005) None General practice specialty
Woodward et al. [19] Canada. McMaster University and other Canadian Universities Retrospective cohort 2028 PBL vs Non-PBLb (408/1620) Graduates (1972–1979) Group 1: matched on year of graduation. Group 2: matched on year of graduation, sex and age Specialty choice
  1. aPBL schools were defined as such following interviews with representatives from each of Canada’s 13 english-language medical schools
  2. bGraduates from schools with a mainly PBL based curriculum were compared with those from schools with a traditional non-PBL based curriculum