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Table 4 Adjusted associations between multimorbidity and musculoskeletal conditions

From: Cross-sectional examination of musculoskeletal conditions and multimorbidity: influence of different thresholds and definitions on prevalence and association estimates

  Multimorbidity OR (95% CI)a, b
Survey-based definitionc Policy-based definitionc Research-based definitionc
1. Two or more co-occurring conditions (2+ threshold)
Musculoskeletal 6.7 (5.6, 8.1) 3.0 (2.6, 3.5) 1.5 (1.2, 2.0)
Osteoarthritis 30.0 (15.2, 59.2) 3.7 (2.7, 4.9) 3.3 (2.5, 4.5)
Inflammatory arthritis 26.1 (0.7, 1035.2) 5.0 (3.3, 7.7) 4.4 (2.9, 6.7)
Other arthritis 10.5 (7.4, 15.1) 3.4 (2.8, 4.2) 2.1 (1.5, 2.9)
Gout 5.7 (3.7, 8.7) 2.8 (2.1, 3.7) 2.7 (2.0, 3.8)
Other musculoskeletal 13.3 (3.9, 45.7) 3.5 (1.9, 6.6) 1.8 (0.8, 3.9)
Back pain 6.9 (5.5, 8.6) 3.3 (2.8, 4.0) 1.3 (1.0, 1.6)
Soft tissue conditions 12.3 (5.4, 28.1) 4.0 (2.9, 5.4) 1.9 (1.3, 2.8)
Osteoporosis 40.4 (5.6, 291.1) 4.3 (3.0, 6.2) 1.9 (1.1, 3.1)
2. Three or more co-occurring conditions (3+ threshold)
Musculoskeletal 5.6 (4.9, 6.3) 4.7 (2.9, 7.5) 3.6 (2.1, 6.0)
Osteoarthritis 14.2 (10.5, 19.3) 7.2 (3.7, 13.8) 5.7 (3.4, 9.4)
Inflammatory arthritis 11.7 (6.0, 22.7) 11.2 (4.9, 25.9) 8.0 (3.8, 17.0)
Other arthritis 8.0 (6.3, 10.1) 6.1 (3.4, 10.9) 4.9 (2.4, 10.3)
Gout 6.3 (4.7, 8.3) 3.8 (2.0, 6.9) 5.1 (2.9, 9.0)
Other musculoskeletal 7.3 (4.0, 13.2) 4.8 (1.7, 13.4) 4.3 (1.7, 11.3)
Back pain 6.3 (5.4, 7.4) 5.1 (3.1, 8.3) 3.7 (2.2, 6.2)
Soft tissue conditions 8.3 (5.7, 12.1) 7.2 (4.0, 13.2) 4.4 (2.0, 9.9)
Osteoporosis 10.7 (5.7, 20.0) 6.8 (3.0, 15.2) 4.9 (1.9, 12.9)
  1. a Association estimates based on comparison with respondents with any of the non-musculoskeletal conditions in each definition
  2. b Adjusted for age and gender
  3. c See footnote of Table 2 for details definitions of multimorbidity used in analyses