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Table 1 Medicinal plants used to treat human diseases

From: Ethnopharmacologic survey of medicinal plants used to treat human diseases by traditional medical practitioners in Dega Damot district, Amhara, Northwestern Ethiopia

Scientific name Family name Voucher no. Amharic name Habit Part used Used for Preparation, dose and application
Acacia Senegal (L.) Wild. Leguminosae MW-053 Grar Tree Resin Stabbing pain Powder of resin taken mixed with molten butter
Agrostis semiverticillata (Forssk.) Christm. Gramineae MW-049 Serdo Grass Leaf Tinea decalvans Fresh pulverized leaf is applied once daily
Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel) C.A.Sm Leguminosae MW-039 Sesa Tree Bark Rectal prolapsed About 80 ml of Powder of bark mixed with little water (decoction) taken once daily
Allium sativum L. Alliaceae MW-001 Nech Shinkurt Bulb Seed Evil eye Crushing the seed with seeds of Lepidium sativum L. and Ruta chalepensis L. and inhale it
Fruit Common cold Inhale the smell of the fruit
Fruit Malaria Crushing the fruit and boil it, finally drink it with much amount of milk for 1 day
Seed Dry cough Crushing the seed and drink with adulterated butter
Aloe pulcherrima Gilbert & Sebsebe Aloaceae MW-002 Eret Tree Latex Wound Applying the latex to the wound for 2 days
Artemisia afra Jack. ex Wild. Asteraceae MW-003 Chikugn Shrub Leaf Common cold Inhaling the smell of the leaf
Leaf Urine retention Powder of leaf taken once mixed with mead
Leaf Haematuria Milk decoction of leaf taken once
Avena sativa L. Poaceae MW-004 Ankerdad Grass Seed Wound Drying the seed then crushing, then apply on the wound till the wound cures
Bersama abyssinica Fresen. Melianthaceae MW-005 Azamira Tree Leaf Ascariasis Crushing the leaf and drink it
Brucea antidysenterica J. F. Mill. Simaroubaceae MW-006 Abalo Tree Root Evil eye Crushing its root with the roots of Pterolobium stellatum (Forssk.) Brenan, Carissa spinarum L. and Clausena anisata (Wild) Benth. and inhale it
Seed Cutaneous leshmaniasis Crushing the seed and apply on the infected area
Leaf Leprosy Handful of fresh leaf grounded to make a paste and to it add small quantity of honey or butter and it is applied externally until cure
Capsicum annuum L. Solanaceae MW-007 Berbere Shrub Leaf Anthrax Crushing the leaf with leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del. and eat it on empty stomach once
Leaf Infertility Small quantities of fruit chewed and swallowed once
Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae MW-008 Agam Shrub Root Evil eye Crushing the root with the fruit of garlic and the fruit of Ruta chalepensis L., finally inhale it
Root Snake bite Crushing the root and bandage on the site of bite for 1 day
Citrus aurantifolia. Rutaceae MW-036 Lomi Tree Leaf Hypertension Crushing the leaf and drying it, finally drinking it as tea
Clausena anisata (Wild) Benth. Rutaceae MW-059 Limch Tree Stem Bone dislocation Stem powder boiled with butter applied daily
Whole plant Mental illness/exorcism The juice of whole plant is employed for bathing
Clematis simensis Fresen. Ranunculaceae MW-009 Azo Hareg Climber Leaf Hemorrhoids Drying the leaf then crushing it and mixing with butter finally apply to area once
Leaf Skin cancer Crushing the leaf and apply it to the area of infection
Leaf Eczema Drying the leaf, crushing it and then mixing it with benzene and wood charcoal
Cordial africana Lam. Boraginaceae MW-058 Wanza Tree Leaf Nightmare Powder of the semi-parasite worn as amulet against startling dreams
Coriandrum sativum L. Umbelliferae MW-052 Dinblal Herb Seed Menorhagia Handful of seeds from each pounded with onions and taken once mixed with milk of black cow
Croton macrostachyus Del. Euphorbiaceae MW-035 Bisana Tree Leaf Malaria Crushing leaf and drink with either Guizotia abyssinica (L.F.) Cass. or milk
Root Tuberculosis Root powder taken pasted with honey or taken dissolved with mead
Cussonia ostinii Chiov. Araliaceae MW-048 Getem Tree Bark Syphilis An inside part of the bark is pounded into powder which is then taken once mixed with a glass of local beer
Cynoglossum coeruleum Hochst. A. Rich. DC. Boraginaceae MW-010 Shingug Shrub Leaf Acute febrile illness Crushing the leaf with fresh water
Datura stramonium L. Solanaceae MW-054 Astenagir Shrub Headache Unspecified part of the plant pounded mixed with ink and placed under the skin of the head
Leaf Mumps Fresh leaf is tied on to the site of the problem
Dovyalis abyssinica (A. Rich.) Warb. Flacoutiaceae MW-011 Koshim Tree Seed Decayed teeth Brushing the decayed teeth with the yellow seed of the plant
Echinops kebericho Mesfin Asteraceae MW-012 Kebericho Shrub Stem Evil eye Drying, crushing and adding the seed on fire to smell
Stem Tape worm Drying and crushing then drink by mixing with Capsicum annuum L. and salt
Stem Common cold Burning the root and inhale it
Stem Acute febrile illness Burning the root on fire and fumigate
Embelia schimperi Vatke Myrsinaceae MW-013 Enkoko Shrub Seed Anthrax Crushing the seed with the seeds of Guizotia abyssinica (L.F.) Cass. and eat with honey
Seed Tape worm Crushing the seed and drink with alcohol
Englerina woodfordioides (Schweinf.) M. Gilbert Loranthaceae MW-014 Teketsila Shrub Leaf Cutaneous leshmaniasis Crushing the leaf and apply it topically
Eragrostis tef (Zucc.)Trotter Gramineae MW-045 Nech teff Herb Seed Diarrhea Porridge of the floor eaten three times daily
Erytbrina brucei Schweinf. Fabaceae MW-015 Korch Tree Leaf Wound Crushing its leaf with the leaves of Solanum incanum L. and Phytolacca dodecandra L’Hérit, finally apply it to the wound once for 3 days
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Myrtaceae MW-016 Nech Bahirzaf Tree Leaf Common cold Burning the leaf on fire and inhale it
Euphorbia abyssinica J.F.Gmel. Euphorbiaceae MW-034 Kulkual Tree Latex Jaundice Mixing the latex with teff powder and putting it in fire till it becomes semidry
Root Rabies Crushing the root and mixing with powder of wheat or teff, finally drying it on fire
Leaf Cutaneous leshmaniasis Crushing the leaf and mixing it with butter
Latex Skin cancer Applying the latex to the affected area
Root Malaria Crushing the root and drink with milk
Ficus vasta Forssk. Moraceae MW-038 Shola Tree Bark Epilepsy Fumigate the patient once daily with the smoke of the powder of bark
Root Frequent miscarriage Root and leaf powder taken once mixed with milk
Grewia ferruginea Hochst. ex A. Rich. Tiliaceae MW-017 Lenquata Shrub Bark Hair fungus Washing hair with the latex of the bark
Guizotia abyssinica (L.F.)
Cass.
Compositae MW-040 Nug Herb Fruit Rabies A cup of oil is given in morning in empty stomach for 3 days
Seed Dry cough A cup of seed powder decoction is given orally in the morning and evening for a week
Seed Retained placenta Boil the oil of the seed together with onions and egg and allow the steam to get into the vagina cavity
Hagenia abyssinica (Brace.) J. F. Gmel. Rosaceae MW-018 Koso Tree Leaf Tape worm Crushing the fresh leaves and mix with water and drink it once
Hordeum vulgare Gramineae a MW-033 Gebs Grass Seed Peptic ulcer disease Drying the seed on fire and eat
Hypericum revolutum (Forssk.) Vahl Guttiferae MW-056 Amja Shrub Fruit Earache Fruit juice applied as ear drops
Juniperus procera Hochst. Cupressaceae MW-057 Tsid Tree Resin Congestive heart failure Powder of fried resin taken orally mixed with water
Justicia schimperiana (Hochst.ex Nees) T. Anders. Acanthaceae MW-019 Simeza Tree Leaf Anthrax Crushing the leaf and mix with fresh water drink it once on empty stomach
Kalanchoe petitiana A.Rich. Crassulaceae MW-020 Andahula Herb Stem Hemorrhoids Putting the stem on fire till it becomes hot then putting it on the area of infection
Leaf Abdominal cramp Crushing the leaf and eat it
Root Sexual dysfunction Milk decoction of the fresh pulverized roots and leaves
Lathyrus sativus L. Leguminosae MW-044 Guaya Herb Seed Constipation Seeds eaten cooked at least once daily to overcome evacuation problem
Lepidium sativum L. Cruciferae MW-050 Feto Herb Seed Wound Powder of seed mixed with latex of Euphorbia abyssinica and bandaged once daily every other day
Linum usitatissimum L. Linaceae MW-021 Telba Shrub Seed Anthrax Crushing the seed with the seeds of Lepidium sativum L. or Guizotia abyssinica (L.F.) Cass. Then eating with honey on empty stomach
Seed Peptic ulcer disease Boil the seed with water and after cooling drink it
Seed Pain during delivery Putting the seed in water till it becomes semisolid and drink it
Lupinus albus L. Fabaceae MW-041 Gibto Herb Seed Hypertension Small quantity of seed and fruit is grounded with water, filtered. The resultant juice is given orally in the morning for 1 month
Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A.Rich Myricaceae MW-060 Shinet Tree Root Headache Butter paste of the root powder placed in the nostril
Olinia rochetiana A. Juss. Oliniaceae MW-023 Chife Tree Leaf Teeth ache Chewing the leaf within the mouth for about a minute and spit it
Root Goiter Powder of root and leaf mixed with latex of euphorbia abyssinica and bandaged on the goiter once every other day
Osyris quadripartite Decn. Santalaceae MW-042 Keret Tree Leaf Jaundice A handful of fresh leaf is grinded and cup of this juice given orally for 15 days
Phytolacca dodecandra L’Hérit Phytolaccacee MW-024 Mekan Endod Climber Leaf Anthrax Crushing the leaf with fresh water and drink one glass of it once
Leaf Scabies Crushing the leaf and washing the area of infection with the crushed leaf
Bark Jaundice Powder of bark taken once mixed with diluted local beer
Root Rabies Crushing the root and drink with honey
Rhamnus prinoides L’Herit Rhamnaceae MW-026 Gesho Shrub Leaf Wound Crushing the leaf and apply it to the wound till the wound cures
Leaf Epitaxis Leaf powder taken mixed with once own urine
Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae MW-047 Chakma Shrub Leaf Appendicitis Fresh pulverized leaf infused in water solution of safflower powder and one glass taken only once
Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Polygonaceae MW-027 Yewusha Milas Herb Leaf Acute febrile illness Crushing leaf with fresh water and wash with it
Rumex nervosus Vahl Polygonaceae MW-028 Ambacho Shrub Leaf Wound Crushing the leaf and mixing with benzene, then boil it, finally washing the wound with it
Ruta chalepensis L. Rutaceae MW-029 Tiladam Shrub Seed Evil eye Crushing the seed with the seeds of garlic and apply it on the nostril
Leaf Epitaxis Fresh pulverized leaves are placed in the nostril
Root Headache Powder of root and garlic mixed with water
Root Recurrent seasonal illness Decoction of fresh pulverized root applied externally
Skebergia capensis Sparrm. Meliaceae MW-046 Lol Tree Bark Malaria Infusion of fresh pulverized bark
Snowdenia polystachya (Fresen.)Pilg. Graminaceae MW-051 Muja Herb Whole plant Menorhagia Juice or infusion of whole plant taken once
Solanum incanum L. Solanaceae MW-055 Embuay Climber Seed Attention deficient disorder Powder of seed given in small amount through the nose to help a child to be a fast learner and intelligent
Syzygium guineense (Wild.) Dc. Myrtaceae MW-043 Dokma Tree Root and leaf Syphilis A decoction is made from each one teaspoon of root and leaf powder and a cup of this decoction is given orally three times a day for 7 days
Trigonella foenum-graecu Fabaceae MW-037 Absh Herb Seed Peptic ulcer disease Putting in water, drying it, crushing and the eating by mixing with water and sugar
Seed Dry cough Crushing the seed and boil with milk
Seed Weight loss Putting in water, drying it, crushing and the eating by mixing with water and sugar
Descopodium penninervum Hochst. Solanaceae MW-022 Aluma Tree Seed Wound Crush the dried seed and apply the powder to the affected area for 3 days
Urtica simensis Urticaceae MW-025 Sama Herb Leaf Peptic ulcer disease Boil the semi-crushed leaf and eat it for 2 or 3 days
Root Malaria The root will be crushed and dried the mixed with fresh water, drink one glass of it and drink much amount of milk
Vernonia amygdalina Del. Asteraceae MW-030 Girawa Tree Leaf Bladder distention Crushing the leaf with water and drink about one glass once
Zehneria scabra (Linn. f.) Sond. Cucurbitaceae MW-031 Haregresa Climber Leaf Diarrhea Crushing the leaf and mix with some fresh water, finally drink one cup of it
Leaf Acute febrile illness Boil the leaf in water till it evaporates and then fumigate with it
Leaf and root Sexual dysfunction Bathe in the infusion of leaf and root for 7 days
Root, bark and leaf Gout Decoction of root, bark and leaf and excrement of hyena employed for bathing
Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Zingiberaceae MW-032 Zingibl Bulb Root Bladder distention Crushing the root with fresh water and drink about one glass once
Root Abdominal cramp Crushing the root and mixing with some water then drink the filtrate