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Table 4 Changes in HeiQ constructs over time

From: Assessment of short and long-term outcomes of diabetes patient education using the health education impact questionnaire (HeiQ)

  T1
(N = 83)
T2
(N = 76)
T3
(N = 66)
From T1 to T2 From T1 to T3
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Change, 95% CI p value ES Change, 95% CI p value ES
Health-directed activity 2.96 0.72 3.07 0.76 3.08 0.90 0.11, −0.04 to 0.25 0.16 0.15 0.12, −0.02 to 0.25 0.08 0.16
Positive and active engagement in life 3.42 0.51 3.49 0.49 3.53 0.55 0.06, −0.03 to 0.16 0.18 0.12 0.09, −0.04 to 0.21 0.17 0.17
Emotional wellbeing 2.94 0.67 3.12 0.73 3.26 0.86 0.18, 0.04 to 0.32 0.01 0.26 0.30, 0.10 to 0.49 0.004 0.44
Self-monitoring and insight 3.23 0.47 3.45 0.37 3.36 0.59 0.25, 0.15 to 0.35 <0.001 0.52 0.10, −0.05 to 0.26 0.18 0.22
Constructive attitudes and approaches 3.51 0.47 3.71 0.35 3.71 0.44 0.20, 0.10 to 0.31 <0.001 0.43 0.20, 0.09 to 0.31 <0.001 0.43
Skill and technique acquisition 2.94 0.59 3.28 0.67 3.33 0.73 0.35, 0.19 to 0.52 <0.001 0.59 0.40, 0.20 to 0.59 <0.001 0.66
Social integration and support 3.30 0.65 3.44 0.65 3.44 0.65 0.18, 0.06 to 0.29 0.003 0.27 0.12, −0.03 to 0.26 0.11 0.18
  1. CI confidence interval, ES effect size, M mean, N number, SD standard deviation, SRH self-reported health, T2 2 weeks, T3 12 months