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Table 3 Literature review of the relevant trials evaluating the effects of intravenous lignocaine on intraoperative haemodynamics and anaesthetic requirements

From: The effects of intravenous lignocaine on depth of anaesthesia and intraoperative haemodynamics during open radical prostatectomy

Author Patients (n) Type of surgery Lignocaine Trial design Variable measured Outcome (compared to control)
Bolus dose Infusion dose
Cassuto [25] 20 Elective Cholecystectomy 100 mg 2 mg/min/24 h Single centre RCT Intraoperative SBP No significant differences
Intraoperative HR No significant differences
Rimback [26] 30 Cholecystectomy 100 mg 3 mg/min for 24 h Single centre RCT SBP during first postoperative day No significant differences
HR during first postoperative day No significant differences
Ben-Shlomo [14] 90 Minor gynaecological surgery 3 mg/kg (intramuscular) None Double blinded factorial RCT Total dose of propofol required to achieve loss in response 34.4% lower in the Lignocaine group (p < 0.001)
Waijma [23] 25 Electroconvulsive Therapy 1.5 mg/kg None Double blinded RCT MAP before and during electroconvulsive therapy No significant differences
HR before and during electroconvulsive therapy No significant differences
Kuo [20] 60 Elective colon surgery 2 mg/kg 3 mg/kg/h Single centre, double blinded RCT Mean end tidal desflurane concentration 18% lower in Lignocaine group. (p < 0.1)
Kaba [21] 40 Laparoscopic colectomy 1.5 mg/kg 2 mg/kg/h until end of operation, then 1.33 mg/k/g/h for next 24 h Single centre, double blinded RCT Intraoperative MAP Lower in the Lignocaine group (p = 0.03)
Intraoperative HR Lower in the Lignocaine group (p = 0.002)
Mean end tidal sevoflurane concentration 35% lower in the Lignocaine group (p < 0.001)
Saadawy [22] 120 Laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 mg/kg 2 mg/kg/h for duration of surgery Single centre, double blinded factorial RCT MAP before induction, during operation, and in recovery No significant differences
HR before induction, during operation, and in recovery No significant differences
Mean end tidal sevoflurane concentration 48% lower in the Lignocaine group (p < 0.001)
Altermatt [12] 40 Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy 1.5 mg/kg 2 mg/kg/h Double blinded RCT Mean maintenance propofol dose 17% lower in the Lignocaine group (p = 0.01)
Choi [18] 60 Breast plastic surgery 1.5 mg/kg 1.5 mg/kg/h Single centre RCT Mean intraoperative end tidal sevoflurane concentration 5% lower in the Lignocaine group (p = 0.014)
Hamp [16] 90 Elective surgery 1.5 mg/kg None Double blinded factorial RCT Intraoperative mean alveolar concentration of sevoflurane 12% lower in the Lignocaine group (p = 0.022)
0.75 mg/kg Intraoperative mean alveolar concentration of sevoflurane No significant differences when compared with the Saline group
Staikou [24] 78 Not specified 1.5 mg/kg None Double blinded RCT SBP and DBP before induction and during surgery No significant differences
HR before induction and intraoperative No significant differences
Weber [13] 54 Breast or orthopaedic surgery 1.5 mg/kg None Double blinded factorial RCT Mean intraoperative plasma level of propofol required to prevent a movement response in 50% of patients (Cp50) 42% lower in the Lignocaine group (p < 0.05)
0.5 mg/kg Mean intraoperative Cp50 of propofol No significant differences