Skip to main content

Table 1 Reasons for papers’ retraction adapted from COPE guidelines [2]

From: A survey of retracted articles in dentistry

Reason Definition
Redundant publication Publication of the same data or article in more than one journal without appropriate justification, permission or cross-referencing
Overlap Some new findings are presented in an article that also contains a substantial amount of previously published information
Misconduct Evidence of unreliable results caused, for example, by data fabrication
Honest error Evidence of unreliable results, caused, for example, by a miscalculation or by an experimental error
Plagiarism Content of other author (data, words or theories) is presented by another author without referencing as it was his own
Authorship issues Authorship dispute of an article
No reason reported No clear information of the reasons for the retraction was mentioned