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Table 1 Patient characteristics of 40 cases (infants with bronchiolitis) and 115 controls (healthy infants) at enrollment

From: Sphingolipid metabolism potential in fecal microbiome and bronchiolitis in infants: a case–control study

Characteristics Infants with bronchiolitis n = 40 Healthy control infants n = 115 P value* 
Demographics
 Age (mo), median (IQR) 3.2 (1.6–4.9) 3.8 (2.0–4.9) 0.52
 Male sex 22 (55) 64 (56) 0.99
  Race/ethnicity    0.04
  Non-hispanic white 23 (58) 61 (53)  
  Non-hispanic black 6 (15) 11 (10)  
  Hispanic 10 (25) 19 (17)  
  Other 1 (3) 24 (21)  
Prenatal history
 Parental history of asthma 16 (40) 21 (18) 0.01
 Maternal smoking during pregnancy 8 (20) 3 (3) 0.001
 Maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy 11 (28) 13 (11) 0.02
 Maternal antibiotic use during labor 12 (30) 35 (30) 0.82
Past medical history and home environmental characteristics
 Mode of birth, C-section 9 (23) 43 (37) 0.13
 Prematurity (32–37 weeks) 12 (30) 11 (10) 0.004
 Previous breathing problems before enrollment† 8 (20) 0 (0) <0.001
 History of eczema 8 (20) 17 (15) 0.56
 Ever attended daycare 9 (23) 14 (12) 0.16
 Smoking exposure at home 8 (20) 4 (3) 0.002
 Mostly breastfed for the first 3 months of age 16 (40) 89 (77) 0.009
 Systemic antibiotic use before enrollmentb 8 (20) 13 (11) 0.24
 Systemic corticosteroid use before enrollment 9 (23) 0 (0) <0.001
Clinical course
 Systemic antibiotic use during pre-hospitalization visit 8 (20)
 Systemic corticosteroid use during pre-hospitalization visit 3 (8)
 Hospital length-of-stay (day), median (IQR) 3 (2–4)
 Admission to intensive care unit 8 (20)
 Use of mechanical ventilationa 5 (13)
  1. Data are no. (%) of infants unless otherwise indicated. Percentages may not equal 100 because of missingness or rounding
  2. IQR interquartile range
  3. * Chi square, Fisher exact, or Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests, as appropriate
  4. aDefined as an infant having cough that wakes him/her at night and/or causes emesis, or when the child has wheezing or shortness of breath without cough
  5. bLifetime use of systemic antibiotic use before the enrollment. Infants with systemic antibiotic treatment in the preceding 7 days were not enrolled to the control group