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Table 5 Results of univariate analysis for predictive variables potentially associated with a positive EGD outcome by age

From: Predictors of positive esophagogastroduodenoscopy outcomes in children and adolescents: a single center experience

Predictor variable Age <4 years (n = 278) Age 4–9 years (n = 248) Age 10–13 years (n = 271) Age ≥14 years (n = 336)
Positive EGD outcome: n (%) p Positive EGD outcome: n (%) p Positive EGD outcome: n (%) p Positive EGD outcome: n (%) p
Female gender 41 (14.7) 0.810 81 (32.7) 0.962 75 (27.7) 0.02 142 (42.3) 0.076
African–American race 28 (10.1) 0.001 20 (8.1) 0.715 14 (5.2) 0.562 33 (10.1) 0.087
Abdominal pain 10 (3.6) 0.305 110 (44.4) 0.352 120 (44.3) 0.550 162 (48.2) 0.255
Vomiting 57 (20.5) 0.477 39 (15.7) 0.968 45 (16.6) 0.925 64 (19) 0.652
Diarrhea 13 (4.7) 0.586 16 (6.5) 0.265 27 (10) 0.011 31 (9.2) 0.946
Nausea 1 (0.4) 0.754 36 (14.5) 0.395 50 (18.5) 0.075 78 (23.2) 0.729
Regurgitation 3 (1.1) 0.714 11 (4.4) 0.237 20 (7.4) 0.512 25 (7.4) 0.502
Choking/gagging 20 (7.2) 0.549 1 (0.7) 0.05 5 (1.8) 0.746 4 (1.2) 0.576
Dysphagia 3 (1.1) 0.140 17 (6.9) 0.285 32 (11.8) 0.02 45 (13.4) 0.100
Odynophagia 0 (0) 1 (0.7) 0.430 0 (0) 4 (1.2) 0.172
Feeding refusal 13 (4.7) 0.287 2 (0.8) 0.148 2 (0.7) 0.971 0 (0)
Anorexia 2 (1.8) 0.559 10 (4) 0.019 9 (3.3) 0.782 18 (5.4) 0.474
Belching 2 (0.7) 0.145 5 (2) 0.02 8 (3) 0.615 15 (4.5) 0.977
Cough 5 (1.8) 0.783 4 (1.6) 0.077 2 (0.7) 0.091 3 (0.9) 0.141
Heartburn 0 (0) 18 (7.3) 0.657 22 (8.1) 0.076 36 (10.7) 0.080
Bloating/flatulence 6 (2.2) 0.774 24 (9.7) 0.028 14 (5.2) 0.611 11 (3.3) 0.677
Throat pain 2 (0.7) 0.656 9 (3.6) 0.643 8 (3) 0.941 4 (1.2) 0.515
Irritability 34 (12.2) 0.127 2 (0.8) 0.628 1 (0.4) 0.469 0 (0)
Weight loss/failure to thrive 34 (12.2) 0.204 13 (5.2) 0.195 28 (10.3) 0.263 26 (7.7) 0.996
Positive celiac antibodies 11 (4) 0.049 35 (14.1) 0.253 36 (13.3) 0.083 23 (6.8) 0.310
Allergies 18 (6.5) 0.155 25 (10.1) 0.751 23 (8.5) 0.808 24 (7.1) 0.323
  1. Italic values reflect values that are significant
  2. EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy