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Table 1 Out-of-pocket expenditure and other parameters from hospitalization due to childbirth across wealth quintiles, caste and place of residence in public and private health facilities across India

From: Cost of hospitalization for childbirth in India: how equitable it is in the post-NRHM era?

Wealth quintiles Public Private Overall
1st MPCE 23 (10–44) 166 (98–282) 28 (11–67)
2nd MPCE 25 (12–52) 186 (105–346) 42 (15–113)
3rd MPCE 28 (13–58) 200 (111–337) 61 (20–154)
4th MPCE 28 (14–60) 235 (130–369) 78 (25–223)
5th MPCE 31 (14–70) 312 (156–514) 175 (54–405)
Overall 26 (11–52) 231 (123–386) 54 (18–165)
Caste
 Scheduled caste 23 (10–48) 200(115–371) 34 (13–100)
 Scheduled tribe 18 (9–41) 154 (75–240) 25 (10–67)
 Backward class 25 (12–48) 229 (119–381) 54 (18–169)
 General 37 (17–77) 261 (146–413) 88 (32–246)
Place of residence
 Rural 25 (11–50) 200 (111–346) 42 (16–122)
 Urban 28 (12–61) 273 (154–457) 105 (29–295)
Catastrophic expenditurea (%) 7% 60% 25%
Duration of treatment (in days) 3 (2–4) 5 (3–7) 4 (2–6)
Sale/borrowing of assets (%) 11 20 15
Medicines as a proportion of total cost 25 18 22
Indirect costb as a proportion of total cost 43 09 26
  1. Weighted analysis done; cost estimates are given in terms of US dollars
  2. The household monthly per capita consumption expenditure limits (in USD) for the five quintiles are as follows: first quintile (3–11), second quintile (12–24), third quintile (25–35), fourth quintile (36–52) and the fifth quintile (53–578)
  3. IQR inter quartile range, MPCE monthly per capita expenditure
  4. aExpenditure amounting to more than 10% of annual consumption expenditure is defined as catastrophic
  5. bIndirect cost includes transport for patient and others, expenses on food, escort, lodging charges and others, etc