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Table 3 Multivariate regression showing factors predicting catastrophic expenditure due to hospitalization from childbirth in India, 2014

From: Cost of hospitalization for childbirth in India: how equitable it is in the post-NRHM era?

Characteristics Non-catastrophic expenditure, N (%) Catastrophic expenditure, N (%) Total, N P value Adjusted OR (CI) P value
Place of residence     <0.001   
 Rural 5488 (76) 1745 (24) 7233   1.0  
 Urban 3809 (67) 1899 (33) 5708   1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.003
Wealth quintiles     0.03   
 1st MPCE 1893 (73) 700 (27) 2593   10.1 (8.3–12.2) <0.001
 2nd MPCE 2090 (72) 796 (28) 2886   4.7 (3.9–5.6) <0.001
 3rd MPCE 1993 (73) 737 (27) 2730   2.7 (2.3–3.2) <0.001
 4th MPCE 1668 (70) 712 (30) 2380   1.9 (1.6–2.2) <0.001
 5th MPCE 1655 (70) 699 (30) 2354   1.0  
Religion     0.19   
 Hinduism 7162 (71) 2872 (29) 10,034   1.0  
 Islam 1307 (73) 474 (27) 1781   0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.01
 Christianity 526 (73) 191 (27) 717   1.1 (0.9–1.4) 0.4
 Others 302 (74) 107 (26) 409   1.4 (1.0–1.9) 0.02
Caste     <0.001   
 SC/ST 3174 (81) 751 (19) 3925   0.6 (0.5–0.7) <0.001
 Other backward class 3604 (69) 1595 (31) 5199   0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.002
 General 2519 (66) 1298 (34) 3817   1.0  
Region     <0.001   
 North 2471 (79) 673 (21) 3144   1.1 (0.8–1.3) 0.6
 South 1643 (57) 1250 (43) 2893   2.8 (2.2–3.5) <0.001
 East 2647 (74) 932 (26) 3579   3.0 (2.3–3.8) <0.001
 West 1760 (73) 639 (27) 2399   1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.8
 Central 778 (84) 150 (16) 928   1.0  
Place of delivery
 Public 7391(92) 710 (8) 8101 <0.001 1.0  
 Private 1908 (39) 2934 (61) 4842   38.6 (33.6–44.3) <0.001
  1. Weighted analysis done; expenditure amounting to more than 10% of annual consumption expenditure is defined as catastrophic; MPCE = monthly per capita expenditure; The household monthly per capita consumption expenditure limits (in USD) for the five quintiles are as follows: first quintile (3–11), second quintile (12–24), third quintile (25–35), fourth quintile (36–52) and the fifth quintile (53–578)
  2. SC scheduled caste, ST scheduled tribe, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval