Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics and results of included studies

From: Effect of exercise type on smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Authors Study design Study population Interventions Outcomes
Abrantes et al. [40] RCT
12 months of follow-up
61 physically inactive smokers who had smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day I1: telephone counseling + NRT + aerobic exercise program + counseling for exercise promotion
C: telephone counseling + NRT + health education program
Telephone counseling: 20 min/session/week for 8 weeks
Aerobic exercise program: supervised, aerobic activity, 55–69% of maximal heart rate, 20 min/session (gradual increase), once a week at the research fitness facility. Participants were given exercise prescription to engage in exercise with a goal of progressing to 100 min of moderate intensity of exercise per week midway through the intervention and 150 min/week by the last several weeks of the 12-week intervention
Counseling for exercise promotion: group-based, 20 min/session/week for 12 weeks
Health education program: 1 h/session/week for 12 weeks
7 day PPA
Continuous abstinence verified by CO
Bize et al. [41] RCT
12 months of follow-up
481 sedentary smokers who had smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day for at least 3 years I1: counseling + NRT + physical activity (PA) program
C: counseling + NRT + healthy life style program (equal time as PA program)
Counseling: 15 min/session/week for 9 weeks
PA program: group-based, walking or jogging, 45 min/session/week for 9 weeks, 40–60% of maximal oxygen uptake, and encourage participant to practice PA about 30 min, four times/week
Continuous abstinence verified by CO
Bock et al. [55] RCT
6 months of follow-up
55 sedentary female smokers who smoked at least 5 cigarettes/day I1: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) + yoga program
C: CBT + wellness program (equal time as yoga program)
CBT: group-based, 1 h/session/week for 8 weeks
Yoga program: group based Vinyasa style, 1 h/sessions, twice a week for 8 weeks
24 h abstinence verified by CO
7 day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) verified by saliva cotinine
Ciccolo et al. [54] RCT
6 months of follow-up
25 smokers who smoked at least 5 cigarettes/day for at least 1 year I1: resistance training
C: contact control condition
Resistance training: 60 min/session, twice a week for 12 weeks, 10 exercises, 10 repetitions of 65–75% of estimated maximal strength, weeks 1–3 complete 1 set, weeks 4–12 complete 2 sets
Contact control condition: watch VDO, 25 min/session, 2 sessions/week
All participants received single session of 15–20 min smoking cessation counseling and box of 8 weeks nicotine patch before randomizationa
7 day PPA
Continuous abstinence verified by CO
Hill et al. [42] RCT
6 months of follow-up
36 smokers who smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day I1: smoking cessation program + exercise
C: smoking cessation program
Smoking cessation program: 2 sessions/week for 5 weeks
Exercise program: group-based, aerobic activity, 30 min/session, session/week for 5 weeks. Participants were encourage to engage in physical activity as often as possible
7 day PPA verified by CO
Hill et al. [43] RCT
12 months of follow-up
82 current smokers 50 years old of age or older who had smoked for at least 30 years I1: behavioral training
I2: behavioral training + nicotine gum
I3: behavioral training + exercise
I4: exercise only
Behavioral training: 90 min/session, 12 sessions across 3 months
Exercise program: walking program including of 10 min warming and 15–35 steady walk, 1–3 times/week for 12 weeks, 60–70% of heart rate reserve
5 day PPA verified by CO
Kinnunen et al. [44] RCT
12 months of follow-up
182 sedentary female smokers who had smoked at least 5 cigarettes/day I1: behavioral counseling + nicotine gum + supervised exercise
I2: behavioral counseling + nicotine gum + health education (equal time as exercise program)
C: behavioral counseling + nicotine gum
Behavioral counseling: approximately 10 min/session/week for 19 weeks
Supervised exercise: treadmill, 40 min/session, twice a week for the first 5 week and once a week for 14 weeks remain 60–80% of maximal heart rate. Participants were encourage to exercise at home to bring total session for at least 3 sessions/week
Continuous abstinence verified by CO and saliva cotinine
Maddison et al. [53] RCT
24 weeks of follow-up
906 sedentary smokers who smoked their first cigarette within 30 min of waking I1: Usual care condition + NRT + Fit 2 quit program
C: Usual care condition + NRT
Usual care condition: quit line which provide information and support to quit smoking for 3 months
Fit 2 quit program: physical activity counseling, 10 sessions (1 face-to-face and 9 telephone-based session) over 6 months
7 day PPA
Continuous abstinence
No verification
Marcus et al. [45] RCT
12 months of follow-up
20 healthy women smokers who had smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day for at least the past 3 years I1: smoking cessation program + exercise
C: smoking cessation program
Smoking cessation program: 1 h/session for 8 sessions over 4 weeks
Exercise: supervised, cycle ergometer, 30–45 min/sessions, 3 session/week for 15 weeks, 70–85% of maximal heart rate
7 day PPA verified by saliva cotinine
Marcus et al. [46] RCT
12 months of follow-up
20 healthy female who had smoked 8–40 cigarettes daily for at least 8 years I1: smoking cessation program + exercise
C: smoking cessation program + health education (equal time as exercise program)
Smoking cessation program: 1 h/session/week for 12 weeks
Exercise program: supervised, cycle ergometer (treadmill walking or rowing for cycle ergometer once a week for choices), 30–45 min/sessions, 3 session/week for 15 weeks, 70–85% of maximal heart rate
7 day PPA verified by saliva cotinine
Marcus et al. [47] RCT
63 weeks of follow-up
281 healthy sedentary female smokers who had regular smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day for at least 3 years I1: smoking cessation program + exercise
C: smoking cessation program + contact control
Smoking cessation program: group-based, once a week for 12 weeks
Exercise: supervised, aerobic activity, 40–50 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 12 week, 60–85% of heart rate reserve
7 day PPA
Continuous abstinence
Both verified by CO and saliva cotinine
Marcus et al. [48] RCT
12 months of follow-up
217 sedentary female smokers who regular smoked at least 5 cigarettes/day for at least 1 year I1: CBT + nicotine patch + exercise
C: CBT + nicotine patch + contact control
CBT: 1 h/session/week for 8 weeks
Exercise: aerobic activity, 1 h/session/week for 8 weeks at gym, 45–59% of heart rate reserve and the remainder of the week participant were instructed to exercise for 4 days at gym or home (goal 165 min/week)
7 day PPA
Continuous abstinence Both verified by CO and saliva cotinine
Martin et al. [49] RCT
12 months of follow-up
205 recovering alcoholic smokers who had smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day I1: quit program + nicotine anonymous meeting
I2: behavioral counseling + exercise
I3: behavioral counseling + nicotine gum
Quit program: once a week for 8 weeks
Nicotine anonymous meeting: 3 sessions/week for 4 weeks
Behavioral counseling: 60–75 min/session/week for 8 weeks
Exercise: walking and use equipment (treadmill or stationary bicycle, etc.), 15–45 min/session/week on site and 3 session/week at home, 60–70% of maximal heart rate [73]
7 day PPA verified by CO
McKay et al. [57] RCT
6 months of follow-up
2318 smokers who can access to the internet I1: web-based quit smoking network (QSN)
C: web-based active live
QSN: provide the key concepts and strategy of a behavioral program for quitting smoking
Active live: program design to encourage participants to engage in a personalized fitness program
7 day PPA
No verification
Prapavessis et al. [50] RCT
58 weeks of follow-up
142 sedentary female smokers who had smoked in excess of 10 cigarettes/day for the last 3 years I1: CBT
I2: CBT + nicotine patch
I3: exercise program
I4: exercise program + nicotine patch
CBT: supervised, 45 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 12 week
Exercise: cycle ergometer, 45 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 12 week, 60–75% of heart rate reserve
7 day PPA
Continuous abstinence Both verified by CO and saliva cotinine
Russell et al. [51] RCT
18 months of follow-up
42 women smokers I1: behavioral smoking cessation program + exercise program
I2: behavioral smoking cessation program + health education program
C: behavioral smoking cessation program
Behavioral smoking cessation program: 1 h/session for 4 consecutive days
Health education program: once a week for 9 weeks (topic about diet exercise, and coping with stress)
Exercise program: walking/jogging activity, 20–30 min/session, 3 session/week (2 session can be done outside of the class), 70–80% of maximal heart rate
Quit rate (PPA or continuous abstinence were not defined) verified by CO
Taylor et al. [52] RCT
23 weeks of follow-up
68 men smokers post-acute myocardial infraction I1: exercise testing + home exercise training
I2: exercise testing + supervised group exercise training
I3: exercise testing
C: exercise testing at end of treatment only
Participants in I1, I2 and I3 received a single session of smoking counseling program
Quit rate (PPA or continuous abstinence were not defined)
Ussher et al. [37, 38] RCT
12 months of follow-up
299 smokers who had smoked at least 10 cigarettes/day for at least 3 years I1: behavioral support + NRT + brief exercise counseling
C: behavioral support + NRT + health education (equal time as exercise counseling)
Behavioral support: 15–20 min/session/week, 7 sessions (30 min for the first session),
Brief exercise counseling: approximately 2 min (5 min for the first session), once a week for seven times, participants were advised to progress over 7 weeks of the program towards 30 min of life style or structured exercise on at least 5 days/week in bout lasting at least 5 min, at least 40% of heart rate reserve
Continuous abstinence verified by CO
Whiteley et al. [56] RCT
12 months of follow-up
330 healthy sedentary female smokers who smoked at least 5 cigarettes/day I1: smoking cessation program + exercise program
C: smoking cessation program + contact control
Smoking cessation program: group-based, 60 min/session/week for 12 weeks
Exercise program: aerobic activity, 40 min/session, 3 sessions/week for 12 weeks
Week 1–4: 64–76% of maximal heart rate
Week 5–12: 77–85% of maximal heart rate
Week 4: add 20–25 min of 10 machine based resistance training, at least one set of 8–10 repetitions
7 day PPA verified by CO and saliva cotinine
Continuous abstinence
  1. I Intervention, C Control, CO Carbon monoxide, PPA Point prevalence abstinence