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Table 4 Summary of finding of evidence of the effectiveness of aerobic exercise on smoking cessation

From: Effect of exercise type on smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Outcomes Anticipated absolute effects (95% CI)a Relative effect (95% CI) No of participants (studies) Quality of the evidence (GRADE) Comments
Risk with control condition Risk with aerobic exercise condition
Point prevalence abstinence at the end of treatment Study population RR 1.13 (0.89–1.44) 1643 (9 RCTs)
Moderateb
 
237 per 1000 267 per 1000 (199–341)
Continuous abstinence at the end of treatment Study population RR 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 2156 (7 RCTs)
Moderateb
 
242 per 1000 251 per 1000 (220–288)
Point prevalence abstinence at the end of follow-up Study population RR 1.09 (0.77–1.54) 879 (9 RCTs)
Lowb,c
 
172 per 1000 187 per 1000 (132–264)
Continuous abstinence at the end of follow-up Study population RR 1.09 (0.73–1.63) 1250 (6 RCTs)
Lowb,c
 
150 per 1000 163 per 1000 (109–244)
  1. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence: High quality we are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect; Moderate quality we are moderately confident in the effect estimate: the true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different; Low quality our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect; Very low quality we have very little confidence in the effect estimate: the true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect
  2. CI confidence interval, RR relative risk
  3. aThe risk in the intervention group (and its 95% confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI)
  4. bLimitations of study design
  5. cImprecision