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Table 1 Studied variables and exposures for cases and controls

From: Association between suspected Zika virus disease during pregnancy and giving birth to a newborn with congenital microcephaly: a matched case–control study

Variable Cases Controls p value
Maternal demographics
Age—mean (sd)—year 26.95 (7.15) 27.55 (4.71) 0.751
Marital status— not single—no./total no. (%) 9/19 (47.4) 17/38 (44.7) 0.860
Educational level—no./total no. (%)    1
 Elementary school 4/19 (21.0) 8/38 (21.0)  
 Middle school 6/19 (31.5) 12/38 (31.5)  
 High School 9/19 (47.4) 18/38 (47.4)  
Occupation—no./total no. (%)    0.077
Homemaker 16/19 (84.2) 22/38 (57.8)  
Not-homemaker 3/19 (15.7) 16/38 (42.1)  
Past infection by dengue virus—no./total no. (%) 8/19 (42.1) 8/38 (21.0) 0.127
Traveled before symptoms—no./total no. (%) 2/19 (10.5) 1/38 (2.6) 0.258
Risk factors for congenital malformations
 Contact with toxic substancesa—no./total no. (%) 0/19 (0.0) 5/38 (13.1) 0.337
 Smoking—no./total no. (%) 0/19 (0.0) 2/38 (5.2) 0.561
 Alcohol consumption—no./total no. (%) 0/19 (0.0) 2/38 (5.2) 0.561
 Use of folic acid-based medication—no./total no. (%) 12/19 (63.1) 17/38 (44.7) 0.222
 Consanguinity—no./total no. (%) 2/19 (10.5) 4/38 (10.5) 1
 Genetic disease in the family—no./total no. (%) 0/19 (0.0) 1/38 (2.6) 0.681
Delivery and neonate data
 Gestational age of birth—mean (sd)—week 37.79 (1.6) 37.89 (1.4) 0.725
 Epidemiological week of birth—mean (sd)—week 43.95 (4.8) 43.63 (3.3) 0.656
 Type of delivery—vaginal—no./total no. (%) 12/19 (63.1) 21/38 (55.2) 0.505
 Head circumference—mean (sd)—cm 28.50 (2.2) 34.40 (0.9) <0.0001
 Thoracic circumference—mean (sd)—cm 30.76 (1.9) 32.84 (1.1) 0.0004
 Height—mean (sd)—cm 44.18 (2.3) 47.64 (1.5) 0.0001
 Weight—mean (sd)—kg 2.589 (0.42) 3.329 (0.326) <0.0001
 Gender—females—no./total no. (%) 12/19 (63.1) 24/38 (63.1) 1
Symptoms experienced during pregnancy
 Any rash—no./total no. (%) 12/19 (63.1) 7/38 (18.4) 0.005
 Macular rash—no./total no. (%) 4/19 (21.0) 5/38 (13.1) 0.429
 Maculopapular rash—no./total no. (%) 8/19 (42.1) 2/38 (5.2) 0.009
 Fever—no./total no. (%) 10/19 (52.6) 3/38 (7.8) 0.004
 Conjunctivitis— no./total no. (%) 4/19 (21.0) 2/38 (5.2) 0.109
 Arthralgia—no./total no. (%) 9/19 (47.3) 2/38 (5.2) 0.005
 Myalgia—no./total no. (%) 5/19 (26.3) 0/38 (0.0) 0.218
 Peri-articular edema—no./total no. (%) 8/19 (42.1) 5/38 (13.1) 0.030
 Headache—no./total no. (%) 8/19 (42.1) 6/38 (15.7) 0.039
 Retro-orbital pain—no./total no. (%) 4/19 (21.0) 3/38 (7.9) 0.149
 Fatigue/malaise—no./total no. (%) 9/19 (47.3) 2/38 (5.2) 0.005
 Dizziness—no./total no. (%) 2/18 (11.1) 1/38 (2.6) 0.258
 Lymphadenopathy—no./total no. (%) 0/19 (0.0) 1/38 (2.6) 0.681
 Mouth sores—no./total no. (%) 0/19 (0.0) 0/38 (0.0)
 Breathlessness—no./total no. (%) 0/19 (0.0) 1/38 (2.6) 0.681
 Diarrhea—no./total no. (%) 1/19 (5.2) 0/38 (0.0) 0.582
 Anorexia—no./total no. (%) 6/19 (31.5) 1/38 (2.6) 0.178
 Alterations in taste—no./total no. (%) 4/19 (21.0) 1/38 (2.6) 0.275
 Cough—no./total no. (%) 2/19 (10.5) 1/38 (2.6) 0.459
Case definition
 Suspected Zika virus disease—no./total no. (%) 10/19 (52.6) 3/38 (7.9) 0.004
Gestational age of symptoms—no./total no. (%)
  1st trimester 5/19 (26.3) 0/38 (0.0) 0.157
  2nd trimester 5/19 (26.3) 3/38 (7.9)  
Duration of the symptoms—mean (sd)—days 6.70 (5.08) 9.6 (4.6) 0.258
  1. aToxics substances were paint, insecticide (n = 3) and raticide. p values were calculated by univariate conditional logistic regression or paired t test, when applicable