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Table 1 Characteristics of subject and relationships between good SRH and poor SRH

From: Factors affecting the self-rated health of elderly individuals living alone: a cross-sectional study

  Overall (n = 113) Good SRH (n = 77) Poor SRH (n = 36) P value
Age (years)     0.008 (**)a
 Mean ± SD (median, range) 83.3 ± 5.5 (84, 65–96) 84.3 ± 5.0 (85, 73–96) 81.4 ± 6.1 (82, 65–92)  
Gender, n (%)     1.00b
 Female 97 (85.8%) 66 (85.7%) 31 (86.1%)  
 Male 16 (14.2%) 11 (14.3%) 5 (13.9%)  
Length of time lived alone (years)     0.48a
 Mean ± SD (median, range) 12.9 ± 11.3 (10, 1–54) 12.4 ± 9.6 (10, 1–54) 14.2 ± 14.4 (10, 1–50)  
Marital status, n (%)     0.12b
 Widow (er) 96 (85%) 69 (89.6%) 27 (75.0%)  
 Divorce 10 (8.8%) 5 (6.5%) 5 (13.9%)  
 Single 7 (6.2%) 3 (3.9%) 4 (11.1%)  
Certification of needed long-term care or support, n (%)     0.10b
 Not certified 58 (51.3%) 44 (57.1%) 14 (38.9%)  
 Support level 1 17 (15.0%) 13 (16.9%) 4 (5.4%)  
 Support level 2 13 (11.5%) 6 (7.8%) 7 (19.4%)  
 Care level 1 8 (7.1%) 6 (7.8%) 2 (5.6%)  
 Care level 2 12 (10.6%) 5 (6.5%) 7 (19.4%)  
 Care level 3 5 (4.4%) 3 (3.9%) 2 (5.6%)  
 Care level 4 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
 Care level 5 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Chronic malady, n (%)     0.03 (*)a
 Presence 104 (92.0%) 68 (88.3%) 36 (100.0%)  
 Absence 9 (8.0%) 9 (11.7%) 0 (0.0%)  
Frequency of hospital visit per 1 month     0.000 (***)a
 Mean ± SD (median, range) 4.1 ± 4.0 (2, 0–20) 3.0 ± 2.8 (2, 0–12) 6.5 ± 4.9 (5.5, 1–20)  
Emotional support, n (%)     0.000 (***)b
 Presence 104 (92.0%) 76 (98.7%) 28 (77.8%)  
 Absence 9 (8%) 1 (1.3%) 8 (22.2%)  
Instrumental support, n (%)   0.70b
 Presence 75 (66.4%) 52 (67.5%) 23 (63.9%)  
 Absence 38 (33.6%) 25 (32.5%) 13 (36.1%)  
Caregivers, n (%)     0.04 (*)b
 Children 81 (77.9%) 63 (84.0%) 18 (62.1%)  
 Blood relatives 14 (13.5%) 8 (10.7%) 6 (20.7%)  
 Neighbors 9 (8.7%) 4 (5.3%) 5 (17.2%)  
Self-rated health, n (%)     
 Good 5 (4.4%) 5 (6.5%)   
 Fairly good 72 (63.7%) 72 (93.5%)   
 Fairly poor 32 (28.3%)   32 (88.9%)  
 Poor 4 (3.5%)   4 (11.1%)  
  1. Ages, length of time lived alone, frequency of hospital visit per 1 month presented as mean, standard deviation (median, min–max), and differences were examined using t-test. The others presented as number (percentages), and differences were examined using Chi square test
  2. * P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001
  3. a t-test
  4. bChi square test