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Table 2 Clinical and pathological outcome characteristics and diagnostic agreement

From: Application of ultrasound imaging biomarkers (HistoScanning™) improves staging reliability of prostate biopsies

  Biopsy groups P value
Image-guided Systematic Odds ratio (95% CI)
Pathological stagea, % (n)    0.86 (0.31–2.34) .736
≤ pT2b 14.3 (11) 12.5 (11)   
≥ pT2c 85.7 (66) 87.5 (77)   
Clinical stagea, % (n)    10.35 (4.60–24.99) < .001*
≤ cT2b 14.3 (11) 63.6 (56)   
≥ cT2c 85.7 (66) 36.4 (32)   
Stage agreement, % (n)
 Correct 89.6 (69) 46.6 (41)   
 Over graded 5.2 (4) 1.1 (1)   
 Under graded 5.2 (4) 52.3 (46)   
 Cohen’s Kappa (95% CI) 0.58 (0.35 0.80) 0.11 (0.0 0.22)   
 Pathological Gleasona, % (n)    10.35 (4.60–24.99) .268
 ≤ 3 + 4 40.3 (31) 48.9 (43)   
 ≥ 4 + 3 59.7 (46) 51.1 (45)   
 Biopsy Gleasona, % (n)    3.36 (1.69–6.84) < .001*
 ≤ 3 + 4 29.9 (23) 59.1 (52)   
 ≥ 4 + 3 70.1 (54) 40.9 (36)   
 Gleason score agreement, % (n)     
 Correct 81.8 (63) 76.1 (67)   
 Over graded 14.3 (11) 6.8 (6)   
 Under graded 3.9 (3) 17 (15)   
 Cohen’s Kappa (95% CI) 0.61 (0.39 0.82) 0.53 (0.32 0,73)   
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. * Statistical significant difference (P < 0.05)
  3. aChi squared test/Fisher’s Exact test