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Table 2 Mean dental environmental stress (DES) questionnaire scores and comparison among gender and marital status

From: Perceived causes of stress among a group of western Canadian dental students

Category Stressor DES by gender Sig. level DES by marital status Sig. level
Male Female Other Married/common-law
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Social-related stress Living away from home 0.78 (1.01) 1.13 (1.29) 0.216 0.92 (1.08) 0.92 (1.26) 0.781
Accommodations not being conducive for studying 1.65 (1.52) 1.94 (1.68) 0.451 1.70 (1.55) 1.92 (1.69) 0.633
Difficulty in making friends 0.56 (0.92) 0.70 (0.84) 0.236 0.63 (0.87) 0.62 (0.94) 0.906
Romantic relationships 1.80 (1.56) 1.42 (1.31) 0.261 2.14 (1.46) 0.61 (0.74) < 0.001*
Lack of time for relaxation 3.33 (1.31) 3.53 (1.36) 0.471 3.35 (1.34) 3.55 (1.30) 0.533
Lack of holiday time compared to other students 2.51 (1.42) 3.25 (1.26) 0.015* 2.68 (1.43) 3.17 (1.26) 0.127
Social demands-family 1.21 (1.16) 1.84 (1.44) 0.036* 1.30 (1.26) 1.86 (1.38) 0.055
Social demands-friends 1.48 (1.15) 1.87 (1.22) 0.158 1.68 (1.20) 1.59 (1.18) 0.677
Personal physical health 1.74 (1.35) 2.25 (1.89) 0.311 2.11 (1.61) 1.66 (1.63) 0.160
Physical health of others-significant other/family 1.20 (1.11) 1.91 (1.65) 0.084 1.53 (1.40) 1.46 (1.43) 0.793
Financial-related stress Financial responsibilities-living expenses 2.20 (1.41) 2.50 (1.61) 0.449 2.12 (1.47) 2.79 (1.47) 0.055
Financial responsibilities-disposable income 2.10 (1.56) 2.29 (1.62) 0.652 2.02 (1.58) 2.52 (1.55) 0.165
Financial responsibilities-tuition costs 3.12 (1.45) 3.51 (1.47) 0.178 3.06 (1.52) 3.79 (1.20) 0.035*
Financial responsibilities-transportation 1.54 (1.27) 1.71 (1.29) 0.535 1.53 (1.18) 1.81 (1.47) 0.510
Financial responsibilities-size of current debt load 3.15 (1.58) 3.33 (1.64) 0.515 2.97 (1.64) 3.79 (1.40) 0.025*
Financial responsibilities-size of future debt load 3.23 (1.59) 3.51 (1.60) 0.345 3.14 (1.64) 3.82 (1.39) 0.063
Financial responsibilities-interest payments on debt 2.70 (1.56) 2.95 (1.68) 0.511 2.58 (1.60) 3.29 (1.56) 0.068
Clinical-related stress Concern about manual dexterity and clinical skills 1.52 (1.39) 1.90 (1.37) 0.138 1.84 (1.46) 1.37 (1.19) 0.152
Transition from pre-clinical to clinical studies 2.20 (1.37) 2.76 (1.50) 0.072 2.37 (1.44) 2.57 (1.48) 0.475
Completing clinical requirements 2.53 (1.53) 3.22 (1.33) 0.059 2.75 (1.44) 3.04 (1.56) 0.386
Clinical grading 2.20 (1.36) 2.57 (1.33) 0.151 2.40 (1.31) 2.29 (1.46) 0.834
Differences in opinions of clinical faculty and staff regarding clinical decision-making and treatment 2.71 (1.43) 3.11 (1.33) 0.222 2.88 (1.28) 2.89 (1.62) 0.877
Supply of patients 2.56 (1.45) 3.21 (1.45) 0.061 2.85 (1.46) 2.88 (1.53) 0.851
Patient communication and management 2.17 (1.39) 2.40 (1.56) 0.521 2.20 (1.38) 2.41 (1.62) 0.681
Confidence in own clinical decision-making 1.73 (1.19) 1.81 (1.06) 0.608 1.77 (1.12) 1.75 (1.17) 0.807
Adequacy of clinical supervision 1.84 (1.46) 2.29 (1.25) 0.065 2.00 (1.37) 2.11 (1.42) 0.661
Patients attending scheduled appointments 2.15 (1.46) 3.06 (1.67) 0.018* 2.57 (1.64) 2.56 (1.60) 0.973
Occupational/health hazards 1.25 (1.24) 1.59 (1.50) 0.360 1.42 (1.35) 1.39 (1.42) 0.820
Academic-related stress Conducive teaching environment 2.12 (1.29) 2.56 (1.45) 0.169 2.13 (1.35) 2.69 (1.36) 0.098
Criticism of academic and/or clinical work 2.59 (1.34) 3.00 (1.41) 0.185 2.89 (1.38) 2.54 (1.37) 0.230
Approachability of faculty/staff 2.02 (1.39) 2.35 (1.53) 0.360 2.10 (1.50) 2.30 (1.37) 0.405
Communication with faculty/staff 2.04 (1.37) 2.55 (1.43) 0.087 2.17 (1.49) 2.47 (1.25) 0.273
Rules/regulations of College 2.69 (1.59) 2.53 (1.65) 0.616 2.70 (1.59) 2.43 (1.65) 0.447
Expectation versus reality of dental school 3.08 (1.67) 3.55 (1.22) 0.248 3.16 (1.55) 3.53 (1.38) 0.299
Amount of course work 3.06 (1.38) 3.58 (1.15) 0.060 3.26 (1.27) 3.33 (1.40) 0.592
Difficulty of course work 2.50 (1.38) 2.90 (1.24) 0.167 2.55 (1.28) 2.93 (1.41) 0.146
Time available for learning 3.19 (1.44) 3.48 (1.11) 0.412 3.29 (1.28) 3.37 (1.38) 0.716
Fear of not being able to catch up if falling behind in course work 2.80 (1.47) 3.33 (1.37) 0.100 3.00 (1.39) 3.10 (1.56) 0.659
Fear of failing a course or year 3.57 (1.49) 3.83 (1.52) 0.248 3.62 (1.52) 3.80 (1.47) 0.581
Competition for grades 2.00 (1.53) 1.90 (1.67) 0.650 2.06 (1.50) 1.72 (1.75) 0.206
Uncertainty about future dental career 1.86 (1.61) 2.21 (1.28) 0.173 1.87 (1.41) 2.31 (1.61) 0.240
Examinations 2.71 (1.37) 3.50 (1.30) 0.008* 2.95 (1.34) 3.28 (1.51) 0.247
Lack of input into dental college decision-making 2.22 (1.50) 2.82 (1.70) 0.084 2.33 (1.50) 2.77 (1.79) 0.237
Clinical time allotted in curriculum 2.26 (1.36) 2.21 (1.30) 0.821 2.18 (1.25) 2.36 (1.47) 0.701
The language of teaching 1.02 (1.06) 1.05 (1.21) 0.909 1.10 (1.15) 0.89 (1.05) 0.450
Knowledge transfer of information, methods and materials 1.63 (1.23) 1.64 (1.20) 0.943 1.67 (1.31) 1.55 (0.98) 0.947
The amount of material 2.38 (1.46) 2.88 (1.32) 0.108 2.68 (1.40) 2.43 (1.45) 0.397
The difficulty of material 1.83 (1.11) 2.15 (1.29) 0.288 1.95 (1.21) 2.00 (1.20) 0.819
Reference and information resources 1.28 (1.16) 1.39 (1.20) 0.619 1.32 (1.20) 1.36 (1.13) 0.729
  1. * Statistically significant at p < 0.05