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Table 3 Prognostic factors of NPC patients in Hospital USM using simple Cox regression based on symptoms (n = 134)

From: Prognostic factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in a tertiary referral hospital: a retrospective cohort study

Symptoms (presence) b (SE) Crude HR (95% CI) Wald statistic p value
Neck swelling 0.52 (0.27) 1.69 (0.99, 2.88) 3.63 0.057
Nasal presentation 0.04 (0.23) 1.05 (0.67, 1.64) 0.04 0.847
Nasal blockage − 0.10 (0.20) 0.90 (0.57, 1.42) 0.20 0.655
Nasal discharge − 0.50 (0.40) 0.61 (0.28, 1.33) 1.56 0.212
Epistaxis − 0.09 (0.23) 0.92 (0.59, 1.43) 0.15 0.699
Aural presentation 0.25 (0.23) 1.29 (0.83, 2.00) 1.27 0.260
Tinnitus 0.02 (0.28) 1.02 (0.59, 1.76) 0.00 0.949
Hearing loss 0.29 (0.23) 1.33 (0.85, 2.10) 1.55 0.213
Deafness 0.80 (0.72) 2.23 (0.54, 9.16) 1.23 0.267
Serous otitis − 1.23 (0.72) 0.29 (0.07, 1.19) 2.94 0.086
Cranial nerve palsies 0.56 (0.22) 1.74 (1.12, 2.71) 6.16 0.013
Opthalmegia 0.00 (0.37) 1.00 (0.48, 2.08) 0.00 0.997
Visual changes 0.49 (0.26) 1.64 (0.99, 2.72) 3.64 0.056
Numbness − 0.07 (0.46) 0.94 (0.38, 2.31) 0.02 0.886
Hoarseness of voice 0.26 (0.51) 1.30 (0.47, 3.55) 0.25 0.615
Headache 0.17 (0.24) 1.19 (0.74, 1.92) 0.51 0.474