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Table 2 Bivariate analyses investigating nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) before or after illegal drug use (n = 1345)

From: Nonmedical prescription opioid use and illegal drug use: initiation trajectory and related risks among people who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristic ARYS (n = 512) VIDUS (n = 833)
NMPOU first (vs. never NMPOU) Illicit drugs first (vs. never NMPOU) NMPOU first (vs. never NMPOU) Illicit drugs first (vs. never NMPOU)
Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Age per year older 0.91 (0.84–0.99) 0.033 0.94 (0.87–1.02) 0.122 0.98 (0.95–1.00) 0.080 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.083
Male gendera 1.59 (0.85–2.96) 0.146 1.03 (0.57–1.81) 0.923 0.99 (0.59–1.63) 0.972 1.19 (0.73–1.91) 0.487
Caucasian ancestrya 1.06 (0.57–1.93) 0.861 1.13 (0.64–2.00) 0.665 1.66 (1.02–2.74) 0.043 1.99 (1.25–3.21) 0.004
Homelessa 1.99 (0.57–6.48) 0.257 1.47 (0.47–3.90) 0.467 2.48 (1.08–5.54) 0.028 2.26 (1.04–4.59) 0.029
High school incompletiona 0.60 (0.33–1.12) 0.107 0.59 (0.33–1.05) 0.070 1.09 (0.66–1.80) 0.742 1.03 (0.64–1.66) 0.903
Daily heroin usea,b,c 4.30 (1.76–12.95) 0.003 4.82 (2.04–14.19) 0.001 2.82 (1.44–6.08) 0.004 2.61 (1.37–5.53) 0.006
Daily stimulant usea,b,c,d 0.63 (0.34–1.20) 0.158 0.93 (0.52–1.67) 0.798 1.25 (0.72–2.22) 0.437 1.23 (0.73–2.13) 0.455
Binge drug usea,b,c 2.39 (1.30–4.48) 0.006 3.06 (1.73–5.54) 0.000 1.60 (0.94–2.81) 0.091 1.63 (0.98–2.80) 0.067
$ spent on drugs/dayb,e 1.18 (0.64–2.21) 0.594 1.13 (0.64–2.05) 0.669 1.77 (1.04–3.10) 0.041 1.80 (1.08–3.10) 0.027
Non-fatal overdosea,c 1.57 (0.87–2.87) 0.138 1.68 (0.96–2.95) 0.069 2.58 (1.57–4.28) < 0.001 3.14 (1.96–5.11) < 0.001
Methadone treatmenta 2.69 (1.20–6.91) 0.024 3.21 (1.49–8.00) 0.006 4.24 (2.53–7.16) < 0.001 4.22 (2.60–6.87) < 0.001
Emergency room visita,b 0.91 (0.50–1.70) 0.775 1.31 (0.75–2.34) 0.354 1.77 (0.99–3.33) 0.064 1.96 (1.12–3.60) 0.023
Depression symptomsa 1.61 (0.85–3.07) 0.145 1.55 (0.85–2.83) 0.148 1.35 (0.79–2.29) 0.271 1.15 (0.69–1.90) 0.593
Childhood traumaa 1.08 (0.53–2.15) 0.825 1.17 (0.60–2.21) 0.630 1.58 (0.94–2.66) 0.083 1.61 (0.98–2.62) 0.059
Experience violencea,b 2.53 (1.28–5.34) 0.010 2.63 (1.38–5.38) 0.005 1.73 (0.85–3.92) 0.156 1.50 (0.75–3.33) 0.282
Incarcerationa 1.07 (0.58–1.95) 0.823 1.44 (0.81–2.53) 0.212 2.60 (1.37–4.87) 0.003 2.82 (1.54–5.00) 0.001
Regular employmenta,b 1.05 (0.58–1.92) 0.868 1.02 (0.59–1.80) 0.938 0.85 (0.50–1.49) 0.564 0.96 (0.58–1.63) 0.873
Drug dealinga,b 2.62 (1.28–5.84) 0.012 2.41 (1.22–5.23) 0.017 4.61 (2.08–12.27) 0.001 3.88 (1.78–10.19) 0.002
Sex worka 0.80 (0.42–1.57) 0.515 0.96 (0.53–1.79) 0.890 0.72 (0.42–1.21) 0.219 0.61 (0.37–1.00) 0.055
  1. aComparison is yes vs. no
  2. bRefers to activities, behaviours, and experiences in the last 6 months
  3. cIncludes injection and non-injection drug use
  4. dIncludes crack cocaine, cocaine, or crystal methamphetamine use
  5. eComparison is <median vs. ≥ median