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Table 3 Multivariate analyses investigating nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) before or after illegal drug use (n = 1345)

From: Nonmedical prescription opioid use and illegal drug use: initiation trajectory and related risks among people who use illegal drugs in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristic ARYS (n = 512) VIDUS (n = 833)
NMPOU first (vs. never NMPOU) Illicit drugs first (vs. never NMPOU) NMPOU first (vs. never NMPOU) Illicit drugs first (vs. never NMPOU)
Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Age per year older        0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.128
Male gendera         
Caucasian ancestrya        2.39 (1.38–4.19) 0.002
Homelessa         
High school incompletiona         
Daily heroin usea,b,c 3.76 (1.33–13.52) 0.022 3.68 (1.37–12.79) 0.019     
Daily stimulant usea,b,c,d         
Binge drug usea,b,c 2.05 (1.08–3.95) 0.030 2.07 (1.12–3.90) 0.022     
$ spent on drugs/dayb,e         
Non-fatal overdosea,c      1.81 (1.03–3.19) 0.038 2.43 (1.42–4.19) 0.001
Methadone treatmenta 2.22 (0.86–6.51) 0.118 3.13 (1.32–8.68) 0.016 4.43 (2.50–7.96) < 0.001 3.63 (2.12–6.24) < 0.001
Emergency room visita,b         
Depression symptomsa         
Childhood traumaa      1.96 (1.10–3.53) 0.023 1.85 (1.05–3.24) 0.033
Experience violencea,b 2.42 (1.18–5.28) 0.020 2.74 (1.36–5.93) 0.007     
Incarcerationa      1.92 (0.93–3.90) 0.072 2.26 (1.11–4.50) 0.021
Regular employmenta,b         
Drug dealinga,b    1.85 (0.87–4.32) 0.127 4.06 (1.72–11.31) 0.003 2.68 (1.17–7.29) 0.032
Sex worka         
  1. aComparison is yes vs. no
  2. bRefers to activities, behaviours, and experiences in the last 6 months
  3. cIncludes injection and non-injection drug use
  4. dIncludes crack cocaine, cocaine, or crystal methamphetamine use
  5. eComparison is <median vs. ≥ median
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