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Table 1 Quantitative studies investigating medical student attitudes towards older people

From: Medical student attitudes towards older people: a critical review of quantitative measures

Author Study description Quantitative measure of attitudes utilised Study finding
Beer et al. (2011) [10] Cross sectional survey of students from two medical schools (1 undergraduate and 1 postgraduate course) and geriatric medicine teachers: Response rate for students 14% (208/760). Australia UCLA-GAS Responses of students and teachers generally similar. Teachers had more positive responses to the first 4 items of the scale
Bernard et al. (2003) [11] ] Non- randomised trial: 225 first and second year medical students. Intervention-healthy senior mentorship program over 2 years vs control group. USA ASD Attitudes improved in both cohorts, significantly more in the intervention group
Brand et al. (2016) [12] Mixed methodology. Qualitative plus pre and post–test: 128 first year medical students. Intervention-curriculum innovation. Australia Modified UCLA-GAS Positive attitude change in 8 of 13 test items
Cheong et al. (2009) [13] Cross sectional survey: 218 first year and 124 third year medical students. Singapore Kogan’s Attitude To Old Person Scale (KOAP) Positive mean attitudes
Chua et al. (2008) [14] Cross sectional survey: 250 first year medical students at admission. Singapore Modified UCLA-GAS Positive mean attitudes score
Diachun et al. (2010) [15] Randomised controlled study: 196 (75% response rate) third year medical students recruited. Intervention-2 week geriatric rotation vs non-geriatric rotation. Canada Modified UCLA-GAS The attitudes of the intervention group did not deteriorate as much as the control group
Duke et al. (2009) [16] Pre and post- test study: 71 first year medical students. Intervention-senior mentoring program. USA Modified UCLA-GAS Positive change in attitudes measured
Eskildsen & Flacker (2009) [17] Pre and post-test study: 129 first year medical students. Intervention-short geriatric course. USA. UCLA-GAS Positive change in attitudes measured
Fields et al. (1992) [18] Pre and post-test study: 127 fourth year medical students. Intervention-geriatrics rotation. USA ASD No measurable change in attitudes
Gonzales et al. (2010) [19] Cross sectional validity study: 199 first year (91%) and second year (9%) medical students recruited voluntarily. USA Polizzi’s refined ASD Validity of the instrument could not be confirmed by structural equation modelling
Hall et al. (1997) [20] Controlled trial, pre and post–test: 162 (63% response rate) fourth year medical students recruited. Intervention short geriatric course. USA Modified Maxwell- Sullivan Attitudes Scale (MSAS) No measurable change in attitudes
Hughes et al. (2008) [21] Cross sectional survey of students (first year), pre and post–test study(fourth year): 165 first years (99% response rate) and 70 (58% response rate) fourth year medical students. Intervention -geriatric short course in fourth year. UK Modified UCLA-GAS More positive attitudes in fourth year students compared with first year students. No measurable change in attitudes after the intervention
Intrieri et al. (1993) [22] Pre and post-test study with comparison group: 96 third year medical students. Psychiatry clinical rotation with gerontology (intervention) vs psychiatry alone (comparison group) USA ASD Positive change in attitudes
Koh et al. (2012) [23] Pre and post-test, with control: Intervention group (261) second year students, holistic curriculum in geriatric medicine. Control group (254). Singapore Modified UCLA-GAS Positive change in attitudes
Lorraine et al. (1998) [24] Pre and post-test study: 100 fourth year medical students. Intervention-Brief “ageing simulation” intervention. USA ASD Positive change in attitudes
Lu et al. (2010) [25] Pre and post- test study with comparison group: 137 (71% response rate) first year medical students. Intervention-Healthy senior mentorship. USA ASD No change in attitudes
Muangpaisan, Intalapapron & Assantachai (2008) [26] Cross sectional survey: 146 fourth year medical students (Response rate 61%) and 60 medical residents (Response rate 50%). Thailand UCLA-GAS Attitudes positive, no significant difference between students and graduates
Nagoshi et al. (2008) [27] Cohort study with comparison group: 59 medical students surveyed at beginning and end of course. Intervention-new course curriculum. USA UCLA-GAS No difference in attitudes between groups
Pacala et al. (1995) [28] Pre and post-test study with comparison group: 55 fourth year medical students. Intervention-ageing simulation workshop. USA ASD, modified MSAS. Positive change in attitudes.
Roscoe et al. (2005) [29] Pre and post-test study: 252 third year medical students (89% response rate). Intervention-short geriatrics course. USA Modified ASD Positive change in attitudes
Sahin et al. (2012) [30] Cross sectional survey: 106 health professional students, including 43 medical students, and 150 postgraduates. Turkey Modified UCLA-GAS Doctors had more positive attitudes than students.
Seaman et al. (2017) [31] Pre and post- test study: 51 volunteer health professional students, including a small number of medical students. Intervention-Inter-professional team work in an aged care facility. Australia ASD Positive change in attitudes, but numbers too small for significance
Shue et al. (2005) [32] Pre and post-test study with comparison group: 161 first year medical students. Intervention-senior mentorship program. USA ASD, modified MSAS Positive change in attitudes
Stewart et al. (2007) [33] Non-randomised controlled trial: Four sequential cohorts of 249 medical students. Intervention-new geriatric curriculum across course. USA ASD Neutral attitudes, no measurable difference between cohort attitudes
Tam et al. (2014) [34] Pre and post-test study: 60 (82% response rate) fifth year medical students. Intervention-curriculum change. Australia UCLA-GAS Positive change in attitudes
Ten Haken et al. (1995) [35] Pre and post-test longitudinal study: 117 (63% response rate) undergraduate medical students. Intervention-clinical skills course. USA Modified ASD No sustained change in attitudes
Varkey et al. (2006) [36] Pre and post-test study: 84 first year medical students. Intervention-ageing game ‘one off’ intervention. USA MSAS, ASD Positive change in attitudes
Watson (2013) [37] Cross sectional survey: 129 third to fifth year medical students. Australia UCLA-GAS Neutral to positive across scales
Wilkinson, Gower, Sainsbury (2002) [38] Pre and post-test study with comparison group: 186 second  year students had intervention. 62 of this cohort were followed up in fourth year, compared with 160 controls. Intervention-community contact in second year and 4 week attachment in 4th year. New Zealand ASD Positive change in attitudes measured in second year and fourth year
Wilson & Gamser (1982) [39] Pre and post-test study: 61 first year medical students (Response rate 74%). Intervention-short geriatrics course. USA ASD Positive change in attitudes
Zwahlen et al. (2010) [40] Pre and post-test study: 347 (Response rate 81%) undergraduate medical students across the medical course. Intervention-New course curriculum. USA UCLA-GAS No change in attitudes
  1. ASD Ageing Semantic Differential, UCLA-GAS University of California Los Angeles Geriatric Attitude Scale, KAOP Kogan’s Attitude to Old Person, MSAS Maxwell-Sullivan Attitudes Survey