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Table 1 Rodenticide analysis of liver and blood from deceased northern spotted owl

From: Grass is not always greener: rodenticide exposure of a threatened species near marijuana growing operations

Rodenticide Observed concentration Detection limita Quantitation limitb
Liverc (ng/g) Bloodc (ng/ml) Liver (ng/g) Blood (ng/g) Liver (ng/g) Blood (ng/g)
Brodifacoum 33.3, 36.3, 35.7 0.54, 0.48, ND 5.80 0.45 19.30 1.48
Bromadioloned ND ND 0.59, 0.78 0.09, 0.13 1.96, 2.59 0.28, 0.42
Bromethaline ND ND 5.10 0.41 17.00 1.37
Chlorophacinone ND ND 13.00 0.28 42.50 0.95
Coumachlor ND ND 0.33 0.03 1.09 0.09
Coumatetralyl ND ND 8.80 0.60 29.20 1.99
Coumafuryl ND ND 2.40 0.23 8.11 0.76
Difenacoum ND ND 27.00 3.30 89.80 11.00
Difethialone ND ND 4.50 0.25 15.1 0.84
Diphacinone ND ND 8.50 1.10 28.40 3.53
Pindonef ND ND 75.00 10.00 NE NE
Warfarin ND ND 1.80 0.20 5.90 0.68
  1. aDetection limit (DL) is the lowest concentration of analyte in a sample that can be detected but not necessarily quantified as an exact concentration
  2. bQuantitation limit (QL) is the lowest concentration of analyte that can be quantified with suitable precision and accuracy
  3. cResults are either from triplicate replications or not detected (ND)
  4. dValues under DL and QL are for bromadiolone A and B, respectively
  5. eTested for the metabolite desmethyl bromethalin
  6. fEstimated based on previous multi-rodenticide analyses; NE = no estimate