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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects classified according to presence of SHL at 4000 Hz

From: Unexpected association between subclinical hearing loss and restorative sleep in a middle-aged and elderly Japanese population

Characteristic Intact hearing Unilateral SHL Bilateral SHL
N (%) 29,024 (85.6) 2435 (7.2) 2429 (7.2)
Male, n (%) 15,911 (54.8) 2068 (84.9) 2246 (92.5)
Age (years) 50.7 ± 7.4 56.0 ± 7.4 58.0 ± 7.2
BMI (kg/m2) 23.4 ± 3.6 23.9 ± 3.2 23.7 ± 3.4
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 125 ± 17.1 131 ± 16.9 132 ± 17.8
Serum triglyceride (mg/dl) 98 (67–149) 113 (79–174) 111 (76–167)
Serum HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 60.2 ± 15.3 56.6 ± 15.0 55.3 ± 14.5
HbA1c (NGSP,  %) 5.66 ± 0.7 5.82 ± 0.8 5.87 ± 0.9
Pharmacotherapy for
 Hypertension, n (%) 4037 (13.9) 546 (22.4) 616 (25.4)
 Diabetes, n (%) 1031 (3.6) 171 (7.0) 202 (8.3)
 Dyslipidemia, n (%) 2220 (7.6) 288 (11.8) 232 (9.6)
Current smokers, n (%) 7631 (26.3) 1009 (41.4) 1129 (46.5)
Everyday alcohol consumers, n (%) 7765 (26.8) 958 (39.3) 1127 (46.4)
Regular exercisers, n (%)a 7018 (24.2) 682 (28.0) 666 (27.4)
Past history of
 CVD, n (%) 711 (2.5) 118 (4.8) 125 (5.1)
 Stroke, n (%) 321 (1.1) 63 (2.6) 57 (2.3)
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or numbers (%)
  2. All P values determined by ANOVA and χ2 test for continuous and categorical variables, respectively, were < 0.0001. Differences between unilateral and bilateral SHL groups with regard to all continuous and categorical variables between two groups were statistically significant in post hoc Bonferroni testing and an additional χ2 test except for BMI, serum triglyceride, pharmacotherapy for hypertension, regular exercisers, and past history of CVD and stroke
  3. Serum triglyceride concentrations were log-transformed before parametric analysis
  4. BMI body mass index; HDL high-density lipoprotein; CVD cardiovascular disease; SHL subclinical hearing loss
  5. aRegular exercise was defined as ≥ 30 min exercise per session at least twice a week