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Table 2 Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of SHL for RS

From: Unexpected association between subclinical hearing loss and restorative sleep in a middle-aged and elderly Japanese population

SHL at 4000 Hz Both intact Unilateral Bilateral  
SSRS, n (%) 16,544 (57.0) 1542 (63.3) 1652 (68.0)  
 Model 1 1 (reference) 1.30 (1.20–1.42)*** 1.60 (1.47–1.75)***  
 Model 2 1 (reference) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 1.21 (1.10–1.32)***  
 Model 3 1 (reference) 1.06 (0.97–1.16) 1.22 (1.11–1.34)***  
Model 3  
 Men 1 (reference) 1.03 (0.94–1.14) 1.18 (1.10–1.32)**  
 Women 1 (reference) 1.14 (0.92–1.42) 1.32 (0.96–1.81)  
  1. Model 1: unadjusted
  2. Model 2: adjustment for age and sex
  3. Model 3: Model 2 plus adjustment for current smoking (versus non-smoking), daily alcohol consumption (versus infrequent/no alcohol consumption), regular exercise (versus no regular exercise), pharmacotherapy (for hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia), BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c (as continuous variables) and past history of CVD or stroke (versus no history)
  4. BMI body mass index; HDL high-density lipoprotein; CVD cardiovascular disease; SHL subclinical hearing loss; RS restorative sleep
  5. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.0001
SHL at 1000 Hz Both intact Unilateral Bilateral  
N (% of total) 31,603 (93.3) 1494 (4.4) 791 (2.3)  
SSRS, n (%) 18,266 (57.8) 947 (63.4) 525 (66.4)  
 Model 1 1 (reference) 1.26 (1.14–1.41)*** 1.44 (1.24–1.67)***  
 Model 2 1 (reference) 1.04 (0.93–1.16) 1.09 (0.94–1.27)  
 Model 3 1 (reference) 1.04 (0.91.17) 1.10 (0.94–1.28)  
  1. Model 1: unadjusted
  2. Model 2: adjustment for age and sex
  3. Model 3: Model 2 plus adjustment for current smoking (versus non-smoking), daily alcohol consumption (versus infrequent/no alcohol consumption), regular exercise (versus no regular exercise), pharmacotherapy (for hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia), BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c (as continuous variables) and past history of CVD or stroke (versus no history)
  4. BMI body mass index; HDL high-density lipoprotein; CVD cardiovascular disease; SHL subclinical hearing loss; RS restorative sleep
  5. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.0001
SHL at 4000 Hz Not bilateral Not bilateral Bilateral Bilateral
SHL at 1000 Hz Not bilateral Bilateral Not bilateral Bilateral
N (% of total) 31,019 (91.5) 440 (1.3) 2078 (6.1) 351 (1.0)
SSRS, n (%) 17,810 (57.4) 276 (62.7) 1403 (67.5) 249 (70.9)
 Model 1 1 (reference) 1.25 (1.03–1.52)* 1.54 (1.40–1.69)*** 1.81 (1.44–2.28)***
 Model 2 1 (reference) 0.99 (0.81–1.21) 1.18 (1.07–1.30)** 1.29 (1.02–1.62)*
 Model 3 1 (reference) 1.00 (0.82–1.22) 1.20 (1.08–1.32)** 1.30 (1.03–1.65)*
Model 3
 Men 1 (reference) 1.06 (0.80–1.41) 1.18 (1.06–1.31)** 1.18 (0.91–1.53)
 Women 1 (reference) 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 1.10 (0.76–1.61) 1.91 (1.05–3.46)*
  1. Model 1: unadjusted
  2. Model 2: adjustment for age and sex
  3. Model 3: Model 2 plus adjustment for current smoking (versus non-smoking), daily alcohol consumption (versus infrequent/no alcohol consumption), regular exercise (versus no regular exercise), pharmacotherapy (for hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia), BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, HbA1c (as continuous variables) and past history of CVD or stroke (versus no history)
  4. BMI body mass index; HDL high-density lipoprotein; CVD cardiovascular disease; SHL subclinical hearing loss; RS restorative sleep
  5. * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.0001