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Table 3 Summary of the multivariable logistic regression results to predict the use of any PIMsa or benzodiazepines among the 671 elderly ambulatory patients

From: Effect of total exemption from medical service co-payments on potentially inappropriate medication use among elderly ambulatory patients in a single center in Japan: a retrospective cross-sectional study

  Odds ratio (95% CI)b
Unadjusted Adjustedc
PIM use
 Age 1.05 (1.02–1.07)** 1.03 (1.00–1.06)*
 Women 1.26 (0.92–1.72) 1.44 (0.99–2.08)
 CCI 1.12 (1.02–1.22)* 0.96 (0.86–1.07)
 Polypharmacyd 8.12 (5.62–11.75)** 8.02 (5.44–11.8)**
 Total exemption from co-payments 2.16 (1.28–3.66)* 2.72 (1.45–5.08)*
Benzodiazepine use
 Age 1.03 (1.00–1.06)* 1.02 (0.99–1.05)
 Women 1.07 (0.71–1.61) 1.07 (0.69–1.67)
 CCI 1.01 (0.90–1.14) 0.88 (0.77–1.01)
 Polypharmacyd 4.86 (2.96–7.99)** 4.97 (2.97–8.32)**
 Total exemption from co-payments 2.12 (1.16–3.87)* 2.38 (1.22–4.61)*
  1. aPIMs were defined based on the 2015 American Geriatric Society Beers Criteria
  2. bThe level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Asterisks indicate a significant association between the selected variable and the use of PIMs and benzodiazepines; *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001
  3. cThese variables were adjusted for age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, polypharmacy, and total exemption from medical service co-payments
  4. dPolypharmacy was defined as the use of five or more medications