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Table 2 Association between cytopenias; and gender and age groups in malaria (N = 54) and typhoid patients (N = 25)

From: Hematological abnormalities in patients with malaria and typhoid in Tamale Metropolis of Ghana

Characteristics αMalaria group βTyphoid group αMalaria group βTyphoid group p value* (95% CI)
  Anemia
  Yes, n (%) No, n (%)  
 Male 4 (28.6) 6 (60.0) 10 (71.4) 4 (40.0) α1.000 (0.244–3.574), β0.428 (0.439–11.530)
 Female 12 (30.0) 6 (40.0) 28 (70.0) 9 (60.0)
 18–35 6 (16.7) 6 (54.5) 30 (83.3) 5 (45.5) α0.002 (0.009–0.346), β0.798 (0.318–10.210)
 36–55 7 (77.8) 4 (40.0) 2 (22.2) 6 (60.0)
 56+ 3 (33.3) 2 (50.0) 6 (66.7) 2 (50.0)
  Thrombocytopenia
  Yes, n (%) No, n (%)  
 Male 6 (42.9) 0 (0.0) 8 (57.1) 10 (100.0) α0.723 (0.363–4.308), β0.051 (0.003–1.409)
 Female 15 (37.5) 6 (40.0) 25 (62.5) 9 (60.0)
 18–35 14 (38.9) 3 (27.3) 22 (61.1) 8 (72.7) α0.349 (0.027–12.300), β0.114 (0.390–3.772)
 36–55 2 (22.2) 0 (0.0) 7 (77.8) 10 (100.0)
 56+ 5 (55.6) 0 (0.0) 4 (44.4) 4 (100.0)
  Leukopenia
  Yes, n (%) No, n (%)  
 Male 2 (14.3) 1 (10.0) 12 (85.7) 9 (90.0) α0.708 (0.108–3.053), β0.179 (0.017–1.680)
 Female 9 (22.5) 6 (40.0) 31 (77.5) 9 (60.0)
 18–35 8 (22.2) 2 (18.2) 28 (77.8) 9 (81.8) α0.752 (0.248–21.110), β0.612 (0.153–3.360)
 36–55 2 (22.2) 1 (10.0) 7 (77.8) 9 (90.0)
 56+ 1 (11.1) 0 (0.0) 8 (88.9) 4 (100.0)
  Bicytopenia
  Yes, n (%) No, n (%)  
 Male 3 (21.4) 1 (10.0) 11 (78.6) 9 (90.0) α0.358 (0.475–12.690), β1.000 (0.106–12.460)
 Female 4 (10.0) 1 (6.7) 36 (90.0) 14 (93.3)
 18–35 2 (5.6) 1 (9.1) 34 (94.4) 10 (90.9) α0.057 (0.016–0.860), β0.811(0.048–2.076)
 36–55 2 (22.2) 1 (10.0) 7 (77.8) 9 (90.0)
 56+ 3 (33.3) 0 (0.0) 6 (66.7) 4 (100.0)
  Pancytopenia
  Yes, n (%) No, n (%)  
 Male 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 14 (100.0) 10 (100.0) α0.560 (0.018–7.611), β1.000 (0.017–12.460)
 Female 3 (7.5) 1 (6.7) 37 (92.5) 14 (93.3)
 18–35 2 (5.6) 1 (9.1) 34 (94.4) 10 (90.9) α0.589 (0.038–5.858), β0.811(0.048–2.076)
 36–55 1(11.1) 1 (10.0) 8 (88.9) 9 (90.0)
 56+ 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 9 (100.0) 4 (100.0)
  1. Source: Field Survey. *Analyzed using Pearson’s χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, αand βrepresent p values for association of cytopenias with gender and with age groups in Malaria group: patients with plasmodium mono-infection, and Typhoid group: patients with salmonella mono-infection, respectively. Two tailed p value significant at p < 0.05. 95% CI 95% confidence interval