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Table 1 Weight (mg DM) of bite categories grouped by morphological group (M2) (mean ± standard error)

From: Simpler intake estimation using direct observation in small ruminants: grouping bites by plant structure and morphology

Morphological Bite categories: leaves alone Bite categories: leaves + stems
Group1 < 1 cm 3–5 cm 6–10 cm 11–15 cm 16–20 cm < 1 cm 3–5 cm 6–10 cm 11–15 cm 16–20 cm
Grass 33 ± 1a
n = 30
122 ± 3b
n = 30
256 ± 10c
n = 30
396 ± 11d
n = 20
404 ± 6d
n = 10
Small herbaceous 8 ± 1a
n = 20
19 ± 1ab
n = 30
53 ± 8c
n = 20
11 ± 0.5a
n = 20
280 ± 1b
n = 10
32 ± 2b
n = 10
Big herbaceous 25 ± 4a
n = 85
78 ± 8ab
n = 75
137 ± 19c
n = 60
385 ± 58c
n = 40
889 ± 72d
n = 20
50 ± 8a
n = 60
115 ± 11ab
n = 70
176 ± 18b
n = 40
461 ± 65c
n = 50
1214 ± 115d
n = 30
Small woody shrubs 109 ± 1a
n = 30
23 ± 3a
n = 30
102 ± 4b
n = 30
167 ± 4c
n = 30
22 ± 3a
n = 30
85 ± 10b
n = 30
188 ± 5c
n = 25
301 ± 11d
n = 30
684 ± 116e
n = 10
Big woody shrubs 64 ± 5a
n = 39
105 ± 5ab
n = 35
222 ± 19b
n = 35
400 ± 44c
n = 30
750 ± 141d
n = 15
134 ± 9a
n = 29
221 ± 6a
n = 25
585 ± 8b
n = 15
1350 ± 8c
n = 15
1633 ± 166c
n = 20
Small bipinnate 110 ± 8a
n = 20
145 ± 12ab
n = 20
184 ± 17b
n = 20
Medium bipinnate 99 ± 7a
n = 20
150 ± 14b
n = 20
266 ± 3c
n = 10
755 ± 10d
n = 10
922 ± 21e
n = 10
Big bipinnate 76 ± 3a
n = 30
98 ± 4a
n = 30
296 ± 5b
n = 30
1306 ± 31c
n = 30
1582 ± 31d
n = 20
Vines 40 ± 4a
n = 39
111 ± 7b
n = 39
159 ± 5c
n = 39
209 ± 7d
n = 29
362 ± 21e
n = 10
71 ± 7a
n = 39
195 ± 11b
n = 29
317 ± 11c
n = 29
0.412 ± 30d
n = 10
654 ± 20e
n = 10
  1. a–e For each category (leaves alone and leaves + stems), the mean values within a row with a different superscript differ (Tukey’s post hoc honest significant difference test, P < 0.05)
  2. 1 Species listing for each group: Grass: Chloris inflata, Eragrostis ciliaris var. ciliaris, Eragrostis amabilis. Herbaceous small: Sida acuta, Blechum pyramidatum, Tetramerium nervosum. Herbaceous big: Althernatera flavescens, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Bourreria pulchra, Parthenium hysterophorus, Solanum trydanum, Viguiera dentata, Waltheria indica, Morinda royoc. Woddy small: Dyospirus anisandra, Gymnopodium floribundum, Randia aculeata. Woddy big: Bunchosia swartziana, Cordia alliodora, neomillspaughia emarginata, Piscida piscipula. Bipinnate small: Senegalia gaumeri, Mimosa bahamensis. Bipinnate medium: Acacia collinsii, Acacia pennatula. Bipinnate big: Leucaena leucocephala, Lysiloma latisiliquum, Caesalpinia gaumeri. Vines: Bahuinia divaricata, Ipomea crinicalyx, Ipomea nill, Cardiospermum alicacabum
  3. 2 The symbol “–” indicates that none of the species fall within this bite category group