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Table 1 Reason for retraction among the 123 retractions

From: Correcting the literature: Improvement trends seen in contents of retraction notices

Fraud Falsified data, fabricated data 32
Mistakes/inconsistent data Mistakes concerning data found in the paper raised by the author(s)/confirmed doubt over data raised by others 32
Plagiarism Publication of data or text already published by others or self-plagiarisma 25
Overlap Multiple publication of same data 10
Property or legal concerns Publication of elements without obtaining permission 3
Ethics Concerns on the ethical validation of the research 2
Authorship Disputed authorship 0
Editor Production or administrative error 4
Others Peer review process, quality of research, reproducibility 14
  1. No reason provided for 1 retraction
  2. aIn the previous publication, self plagiarism was categorized as overlap