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Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: Public and social environment changes and caesarean section delivery choice in Japan

Sample Hospital Clinic
Variables Mean Std. dev Mean Std. dev
Endogenous variables
 Number of C-section deliveries 6.2 8.7 2.3 3.3
 C-section ratio 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1
Medical facility characteristics
 Public facility 0.6 0.5 0.0 0.1
 Number of physicians 68.5 103.7 1.4 0.8
 Number of sickbeds 331.7 238.5 11.9 5.7
 Opening outside hours on weekdays 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4
 Opening on holidays 0.4 0.5 1.0 0.2
Aggregated variables
 Women’s average age for first marriagea 28.0 1.0 28.0 1.0
 Child mortality ratea 0.7 0.2 0.7 0.2
 Obstetricians and gynecologists densityb 41.8 6.6 41.3 6.7
 The youth population (thousand people)c 602.5 444.2 608.0 428.1
 The amount of lump-sum birth allowance (10 thousand yen, 2010 price)d 34.4 6.1 34.2 6.1
 Prefectural real GDP (billion yen, 2010 price)e 2.1 2.5 2.0 2.3
 The number of yearly medical malpractice lawsuits (previous year)f 895.7 122.0 897.7 122.6
Number of observations (medical malpractice lawsuits) 9874 (8156) 13,631 (11,311)
Number of facilities (medical malpractice lawsuits) 1958 (1882) 2909 (2814)
  1. aVital Statistics, Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare; b Survey of Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists, Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare; c Population Census and Population Estimates, Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; d Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare [21]; e Prefectural Economic Accounting, Cabinet Office; and f The Number of Medical-Malpractice Lawsuits by the Department, Supreme Court of Japan