Skip to main content


Table 1 Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) 4-item checklist

From: Antimicrobial prescription patterns and ventilator associated pneumonia: findings from a 10-site prospective audit

  Item Definition
1 PaO2/FiO2 ratioa ≤ 300 mmHg Deterioration in gas exchange over last 24 h in the absence of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema or pulmonary disease
2 Sputum changes A change in sputum characteristics, increased volume, or colour changes (yellow or green)
3 Chest X-ray infiltrates New localised or diffuse infiltrates on a single Chest X-ray (not explained by cardiogenic pulmonary oedema or pulmonary disease)
4 Inflammatory response ≥ 1 of the following (in the absence of immunocompromise)
   a ↑ Temperature New and persistent (last 24 h) elevated body temperature ≥ 38 °C (or > 37.5 °C if concurrent anti-pyretic medication administration)
   b WCC White cell count ≤ 4 or ≥ 12 cells 109/L for 2 days
   c ↑ Inflammation Elevated serum inflammatory markers: C-reactive Protein (> 100 mg/L) or Procalcitonin (> 2.5 ng/L) for a single blood test
  1. Three days after a patient is commenced on mechanical ventilation, are any of the following clinical items present?
  2. WCC white cell count
  3. aPaO2/FiO2 ratio: arterial oxygen tension divided by fraction of inspired oxygen