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Table 1 Baseline demographic characteristics between No Letter and Letter groups

From: To send or not to send: weighing the costs and benefits of mailing an advance letter to participants before a telephone survey

Variable Groupa
No Letter (n = 138) Letter (n = 137)
Age, mean years (SD) 47.5 (12.9) 48.7 (12.1)
Female sex 70 (50.7) 70 (51.1)
Married or common-law spouse 69 (50.0) 84 (61.3)
Employed full or part time 77 (56.2) 69 (50.4)
Education level
 Less than high school diploma 31 (22.5) 24 (17.5)
 High school diploma 63 (45.7) 66 (48.2)
 Postsecondary 44 (31.9) 47 (34.3)
Household income, $
 < 60,000 85 (64.4) 81 (62.3)
 ≥ 60,000 47 (35.6) 49 (37.7)
Cigarettes, mean (SD), days 18.3 (7.9) 18.4 (7.5)
FTND score, mean (SD) 4.8 (1.9) 5.1 (2.1)
Levels of nicotine dependencec
 Low 14 (10.4) 18 (13.4)
 Low to moderate 46 (34.1) 33 (24.6)
 Moderate 66 (48.9) 68 (50.7)
 High 9 (6.7) 15 (11.2)
Age at first smoking, mean (SD), years 15.4 (4.8) 14.5 (4.2)
Time as smoker, mean (SD), years 23.1 (13.9) 25.0 (14.7)
No. of previous quit attempts
 0 5 (3.6) 11 (8.0)
 1–5 95 (68.8) 89 (65.0)
 > 6 38 (27.5) 37 (27.0)
Previously used NRT (patch, gum, inhaler) in a quit attempt 70 (52.6) 86 (68.3)b
  1. FTND Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence; NRT nicotine replacement therapy
  2. aData are presented as number (percentage) of participants unless otherwise indicated. Sample sizes vary because of missing data on some variables
  3. bp < 0.05
  4. cLevel of nicotine dependence is based on the FTND scores. Scores range from 1 to 10, with higher scores indicating a more intense physical dependence on nicotine. Low dependence corresponds to a score of 1 or 2, low to moderate dependence a score of 3 or 4, moderate dependence a score of 5 to 7, and high dependence a score of 8 to 10