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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of subjects

From: Association between cesarean section and constipation in infants: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

  Vaginal delivery Cesarean delivery p
N (male/female) 67,504 (34,643/32,861) 15,515 (7981/7534) 0.79
Gestational age, weeks 39.5 ± 1.3 38.2 ± 2.1 < 0.001
Birth weight, g 3060 ± 379 2869 ± 515 < 0.001
 Missing, n 14   
Exclusively breast fed, n (%) 29,336 (43.5) 5499 (35.4) < 0.001
 Missing, n 726   
Maternal age, years 30.8 ± 4.9 32.5 ± 1.7 < 0.001
 Missing, n 443   
  1. Gestational age, Maternal age: mean And standard deviation