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Table 3 Crude and adjusted risk ratios for constipation

From: Association between cesarean section and constipation in infants: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS)

  Crude (n = 83,019) Adjusted (n = 71,489)a
OR (95% CI) p value
OR (95% CI) p value
Cesarean delivery 1.09 (0.94, 1.28) 0.26 0.94 (0.79, 1.13) 0.51
  1. CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  2. aAdjusted for maternal age, marital status, body mass index before pregnancy, employment status, total income, education, maternal allergy, exercise and total calorie intake during pregnancy, smoking and alcohol consumption after 1 month delivery, previous delivery, gestational age, birth weight, sex of the neonate, congenital anomaly of the neonate, passive smoking and feeding at 1 month birth, and nursing at 6 months