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Table 2 Socio-demographic factors predicting the practice of skin toning products

From: Prevalence and patterns of skin toning practices among female students in Ghana: a cross-sectional university-based survey

Variable COR (95% CI)
Bi-variate analysis
AOR (95% CI)
Multi-variate analysis
Age
 Less than 20 1.00  
 20 0.680 (0.372–1.242)* 0.491 (0.204–1.184)
 21 2.073 (1.116–3.849)* 0.400 (0.121–1.320)*
 22 1.305 (0.751–2.266) 0.712 (2.27–2.234)
 23 .354 (0.104–1.208) 0.001 (0.000–0.011)
 24 0.06 (0.001–0.005) 0.027 (0.002–0.007)
 25 and above 1.595 (0.458–5.555) 3.718 (0.467–6.12)
Marital status
 Single 1.00 1.00
 Married 0.045 (0.232–0.511) 1.592 (3.98–6.368)
Skin colour
 Fair 1.00 1.00
 Dark 2.7 (1.398–3.203)* 3.287 (1.503–7.187)*
Family physician
 Yes 1.00 1.00
 No 0.574 (1.393–3.86) 1.415 (0.646–3.097)
Where respondents grew up
 Rural 1.00 1.00
 Urban 0.255 (0.934–3.43)* 2.132 (4.46–10.185)
Nature of school attended
 Private 1.00 1.00
 Public 2.998 (0.72–15.06)* 1.9 (1.1–3.56)*
Category of school attended
 Mixed school 1.00 1.00
 Girls school 6.72 (3.410–15.06)* 10.764 (4.2–27.3)*
Level of student
 Level 100 1.00 1.00
 Level 200 0.467 (0.280–0.778)* 10.764 (4.23–27.336)*
 Level 300 0.267 (1.129–0.553)* 0.035 (0.006–0.191)*
 Level 400 2.416 (1.261–4.630)* 49.327 (8.48–286.9)*
Income (GHS)
 Less than 100 1.00 1.00
 101–200 0.619 (0.331–1.157)* 0.144 (0.05–0.412)*
 201–300 0.348 (0.173–0.699)* 1.2 (0.8–1.63)*
 301–400 0.404 (0.177–0.923)* 0.346 (0.09–1.328)*
 401–500 0.166 (0.060–0.459)* 0.001 (0.000–0.006)*
 More than 500 1.01 (0.489–2.085)* 2.118 (0.419–10.703)*
Religion
 Christianity 1.00 1.00
 Islam 2.005 (0.534–7.530) 0.002 (0.001–0.007)
 Traditional 0.243 (0.076–0.778) 0.219 (0.012-4.155)
Ethnicity
 Akan 1.00 1.00
 Ewe 2.983 (1.475–6.034)* 21.893 (2.469–194.315)
 Ga 1.641 (0.769–3.502) 7.148 (1.211–42.211)
 Northerner 0.003 (0.001–0.008) 0.04 (0.002–0.009)
Programme
 Health-related 1.00 1.00
 Non-health related 0.891 (0.554–1.434) 1.907 (0.832–4.368)
  1. CI confidence interval, COR crude odd ratio, AOR adjusted odd ratio, 1.00 reference
  2. p < 0.05