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Table 2 Sequential logistic regression results on the determinants of healthcare use among poor older females

From: Factors influencing healthcare use among poor older females under the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty programme in Atwima Nwabiagya District, Ghana

Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Full model
AOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI
Demographic
 Age (years)
  70–74a 0.845 (0.167–4.276) 0.549 (0.089–3.380) 0.376 (0.049 –2.909) 0.094 (0.003–2.659)
  75–79 0.369 (0.073–1.854) 0.260 (0.042–1.632) 0.152 (0.020–1.180) 0.089 (0.004–2.271)
  80–84 0.675 (0.121–3.777) 0.271 (0.036–2.035) 0.318 (0.033–3.025) 0.175 (0.004–6.995)
  85–89 0.258 (0.021–3.162) 0.227 (0.014–3.625) 0.310 (0.014–2.921) 0.007* (0.001–0.958)
  90 and above 0.624 (0.129–3.013) 0.072 (0.072–2.809) 0.351 (0.042–2.921) 0.167 (0.004–7.584)
 Ethnicity
  Akanb 0.949 (0.229–3.932) 1.325 (0.251–7.001) 1.187 (1.187–7.523) 1.835 (0.069–48.482)
 Religious group
  Muslimc 0.279 (0.081–0.963) 0.150 (0.060–0.762) 0.324 (0.072–1.420) 0.376 (0.037–3.849)
  Traditional 0.068* (0.005–0.879) 0.700 (0.215–1.270) 0.199 (0.004–9.033) 0.005 (0.000–3.855)
 Marital status
  Marriedd 2.338 (0.477–11.456) 2.778 (0.527–14.640) 2.713 (0.475–15.506) 3.850 (0.257–57.687)
Socio-economic
 Education
  Basic schoole    0.938 (0.231–3.807) 0.612 (0.133–2.811) 0.105 (0.009–1.214)
  High school    1.906 (0.191–19.031) 0.861 (0.069–10.754) 1.101 (0.011–114.042)
 Income (GHS)
  101–200f    1.125 (0.270–4.683) 0.873 (0.193–3.940) 0.432 (0.049–3.805)
  201–300    0.662 (0.132–3.310) 0.760 (0.118–4.901) 3.730 (0.152–91.581)
  Above 300    0.762 (0.095–6.128) 0.667 (0.067–6.664) 0.453 (0.019–10.760)
  Uninsured    0.146 (0.017–1.230) 0.246 (0.023–2.657) 0.265 (0.004–16.614)
  No family support    0.127* (0.021–0.780) 0.100* (0.011–0.918) 0.029 (0.000–0.313)
Health related
 No past illness (3 months)      0.128* (0.028–0.587) 0.027* (0.002–0.346)
 Poor health status      0.507 (0.130–1.969) 0.254 (0.023–2.771)
 No NCDs      0.244 (0.051–1.166) 0.003* (0.001–0.313)
 No disability      2.293 (0.260–20.224) 14.492 (0.417–503.645)
Health behaviour
 Non-physical activity (1 month)        0.636 (0.064–6.270)
 Non-alcohol users (1 year)        0.023 (0.002–1.419)
 Non-tobacco smokers (1 year)        94.950 (294–3061. 87)
 Non-fruit intakes (1 month)        2.106 (0.097–45.911)
 Non-vegetable intake (1 month)        1.2* (0.230–2.45)
Model fitting information
 − 2Log Likelihood 104.403    92.045 80.018   47.924  
 Hosmer–Lemeshow χ2 (significance) 2.820 (0.901)    3.414 (0.268) 0.390 (0.557)   4.867 (0.772)  
 Nagelkerke R2 0.132    0.268 6.812   0.672  
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  2. CI, confidence interval; OR, odd ratio; AOR, adjusted odd ratio
  3. p < 0.05
  4. a65–69 years is the reference category for age variable
  5. bNortherner is the reference category for ethnicity variable
  6. cChristianity is the reference category for religious variable
  7. dSingle is the reference category for marital status variable
  8. eNo formal education is the reference category for education variable
  9. f100 Ghana cedis or less is the reference category for income variable
  10. Model 1 = Demographic variables; Model 2 = All variables in Model 1 plus socio-economic variables; Model 3 = All variables in Model 2 plus health-related variables; Model 4 = All variables in Model 3 plus health behaviour variables