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Table 2 Factors that affect nasopharyngeal colonization rate of S. pneumoniae among children who attended kindergarten school owned by government at Tabor sub city, Hawassa from March 17, 2018 to May 20, 2018, (N = 317)

From: Colonization rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae, its associated factors and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among children attending kindergarten school in Hawassa, southern Ethiopia

Variables Colonization rate COR (95% CI) P value AOR (95% CI) P value
No (%) Yes (%)
Age
 3–4 36 (65.5) 19 (34.5) 2.3 (1.2–4.3) 0.011 3.1 (1.3–7.6) 0.010
 5–6 213 (81.3) 49 (18.7) 1 1
Sex
 Male 118 (76.6) 36 (23.4) 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 0.417
 Female 131 (80.4) 32 (19.6) 1
Sibling < 5 years old
 Yes 160 (74.1) 56 (25.9) 2.6 (1.3–5.1) 0.006 2.9 (1.3–6.8) 0.011
 No 89 (88.1) 12 (11.9) 1 1
Number of sibling per house
 1 29 (67.4) 14 (32.6) 1.5 (0.7–3.1) 0.269
 ≥ 2 131 (75.7) 42 (24.3) 1
Daycare attendance
 Yes 86 (82.7) 1 8 (17.3) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.211 0.7 (0.3–1.5) 0.345
 No 163 (76.5) 50 (23.5) 1 1
Smoker in a house
 Yes 8 (61.5) 5 (38.5) 2.4 (0.8–7.6) 0.138 2.6 (0.6–12.3) 0.225
 No 241 (79.3) 63 (20.7) 1 1
Sharing bed with parents
 Yes 157 (73.0) 58 (27.0) 2.7 (1.4–5.4) 0.003 3.5 (1.4–8.4) 0.005
 No 92 (90.2) 10 (9.8) 1 1
Cooking in bed room
 Yes 118 (70.2) 50 (29.8) 3.1 (1.7–5.6) < 0.001 3.6 (1.6–7.9) 0.002
 No 131 (87.9) 18 (12.1) 1 1
Number room per house
 1 169 (77.5) 49 (22.5) 1.2 (0.7–2.2) 0.509
 ≥ 2 80 (80.8) 19 (19.2) 1
Number of family in the house
 < 5 166 (79.1) 44 (20.9) 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.762
 ≥ 5 83 (77.6) 24 (22.4) 1
Previous disease
 Yes 168 (77.1) 50 (22.9) 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 0.340
 No 81 (81.8) 18 (18.2) 1
Previous hospitalization
 Yes 21 (53.8) 18 (46.2) 3.9 (1.9–8.2) < 0.001 3.5 (1.5–8.2) 0.004
 No 147 (82.1) 32 (17.9) 1 1
Vaccination status
 Yes 237 (79.0) 63 (21.0) 0.6 (0.2–1.9) 0.415
 No 12 (70.6) 5 (29.4) 1
  1. N: total participated children; COR: crud odds ratio; AOR: adjusted odds ratio, CI: confidence interval, %: percentage