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Table 1 Multivariate and univariate results of a RMANOVA on the reported spatiotemporal stride parameters

From: The effects of mobile phone use on walking: a dual task study

Multivariate   Mean values Coefficient of variation values
Task Speed Speed × task Task Speed Speed × taska
  Λ = 0.144
F8,30 = 6.1
P < 0.001
Λ = 0.087
F4,6 = 15.7
P = 0.002
Λ = 0.277
F8,30 = 3.4
P = 0.007
Λ = 0.011
F8,30 = 32.5
P < 0.001
Λ = 0.019
F4,6 = 76.7
P < 0.001
Λ = 0.012
F8,30 = 30.8
P < 0.001
Univariate Task Speed Speed × task Task Speed Speed × taska
 Gait velocity F2,18 = 23.9
P < 0.001
F1,9 = 71.5
P < 0.001
F2,18 = 0.8
P = 0.484
F2,18 = 2.5
P = 0.115
F1,9 = 122.8
P < 0.001
F2,18 = 65.2
P < 0.001
 Cadence F1,18 = 7.0
P = 0.006
F1,9 = 68.9
P < 0.001
F2,18 = 0.4
P = 0.668
F1.1,9.9 = 7.0
P = 0.023
F1,9 = 2.2
P = 0.170
F2,18 = 0.09
P = 0.914
 Stride length F2,18 = 38.8
P = 0.000
F1,9 = 62.6
P < 0.001
F2,18 = 1.0
P = 0.386
F1.2,10.9 = 19.9
P = 0.001
F1,9 = 68.3
P < 0.001
F2,18 = 29.9
P < 0.001
 Double support time F2,18 = 8.1
P = 0.009
F1,9 = 26.3
P < 0.001
F1.2,10.7 = 0.3
P = 0.638
F2,18 = 5.2
P = 0.016
F1,9 = 12.3
P = 0.007
F2,18 = 12.9
P < 0.001
  1. Italic values represent significant findings
  2. Λ = Wilk’s Lambda
  3. aSignificant values of this interaction effect are likely introduced by the log transformation of non-normally distributed variables