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Table 1 Multivariate and univariate results of a RMANOVA on the reported spatiotemporal stride parameters

From: The effects of mobile phone use on walking: a dual task study

Multivariate   Mean values Coefficient of variation values
Task Speed Speed × task Task Speed Speed × taska
  Λ = 0.144 F8,30 = 6.1 P < 0.001 Λ = 0.087 F4,6 = 15.7 P = 0.002 Λ = 0.277 F8,30 = 3.4 P = 0.007 Λ = 0.011 F8,30 = 32.5 P < 0.001 Λ = 0.019 F4,6 = 76.7 P < 0.001 Λ = 0.012 F8,30 = 30.8 P < 0.001
  1. Italic values represent significant findings
  2. Λ = Wilk’s Lambda
  3. aSignificant values of this interaction effect are likely introduced by the log transformation of non-normally distributed variables
Univariate Task Speed Speed × task Task Speed Speed × taska
 Gait velocity F2,18 = 23.9 P < 0.001 F1,9 = 71.5 P < 0.001 F2,18 = 0.8 P = 0.484 F2,18 = 2.5 P = 0.115 F1,9 = 122.8 P < 0.001 F2,18 = 65.2 P < 0.001
 Cadence F1,18 = 7.0 P = 0.006 F1,9 = 68.9 P < 0.001 F2,18 = 0.4 P = 0.668 F1.1,9.9 = 7.0 P = 0.023 F1,9 = 2.2 P = 0.170 F2,18 = 0.09 P = 0.914
 Stride length F2,18 = 38.8 P = 0.000 F1,9 = 62.6 P < 0.001 F2,18 = 1.0 P = 0.386 F1.2,10.9 = 19.9 P = 0.001 F1,9 = 68.3 P < 0.001 F2,18 = 29.9 P < 0.001
 Double support time F2,18 = 8.1 P = 0.009 F1,9 = 26.3 P < 0.001 F1.2,10.7 = 0.3 P = 0.638 F2,18 = 5.2 P = 0.016 F1,9 = 12.3 P = 0.007 F2,18 = 12.9 P < 0.001
  1. Italic values represent significant findings
  2. Λ = Wilk’s Lambda
  3. aSignificant values of this interaction effect are likely introduced by the log transformation of non-normally distributed variables