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Table 2 Comparison of depressed and non-depressed mothers (n = 244)

From: Prevalence and determinants of depression in mothers of children under 5 years in Bole District, Ghana

Characteristic Total Depression status Test statistics
No, n (%) Yes, n (%)
Age group (years)
 18–24 62 45 (72.6) 17 (27.4) Chi-square = 7.223; df = 2; p = 0.027
 25–29 82 73 (89.0) 9 (11.0)
 30 + 100 85 (85.0) 15 (15.0)
Education
 None 130 111 (85.4) 19 (14.6) Chi-square = 1.435; df = 2; p = 0.488
 Primary 55 43 (78.2) 12 (21.8)
 JHS and above 59 49 (83.1) 10 (16.9)
Marital statusa
 Currently married 205 179 (87.3) 26 (12.7) Chi-square = 15.576; df = 1; p < 0.001
 Currently unmarried 39 24 (61.5) 15 (38.5)
Religion
 Islam 188 161 (85.6) 27 (14.4) Chi-square = 3.493; df = 1; p = 0.062
 Others 56 42 (75.0) 14 (25.0)
Ethnicity
 Gonja 178 153 (86.0) 25 (14.0) Chi-square = 3.581; df = 1; p = 0.058
 Others 66 50 (75.8) 16 (24.2)
Occupation
 Trader/vendor 105 82 (78.1) 23 (21.9) Chi-square = 5.578; df = 2; p = 0.061
 Housewife 53 43 (81.1) 10 (18.9)
 Othersb 86 78 (90.7) 8 (9.3)
Number of children under 5 in household
 1 171 140 (81.9) 31 (18.1) Chi-square = 0.718; df = 1; p = 0.397
 2 73 63 (86.3) 10 (13.7)
Source of lighting in the house
 Electricity 233 199 (85.4) 34 (14.6) p < 0.001c
 Others 11 4 (36.4) 7 (63.6)
Type of fuel used for cooking
 Firewood 172 138 (80.2) 34 (19.8) Chi-square = 3.663; df = 1; p = 0.056
 Others 72 65 (90.3) 7 (9.7)
Household wealth index (tertile)
 Lowest 84 62 (73.8) 22 (26.2) Chi-square = 8.416; df = 2; p = 0.015
 Medium 81 70 (86.4) 11 (13.6)
 Highest 79 71 (89.9) 8 (10.1)
  1. aLegally married were classified as “currently married”, all other women were classified as “currently unmarried”
  2. bIncludes agriculture workers (n = 45), services providers (n = 34) and salaried workers (n = 7)
  3. cFisher’s exact test used for comparison