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Table 2 Univariate analysis for factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension among Thai adults with hypertension

From: Prevalence and associated factors of uncontrolled hypertension among hypertensive patients: a nation-wide survey in Thailand

Variables Normotension Uncontrolled HT Crude 95% CI p-value
n (%) n (%) Odds ratio
Gender
 Female 31,077 (76.1) 9757 (23.9) 1   
 Male 18,468 (74.4) 6365 (25.6) 1.10 (1.06–1.14) < 0.001
Age (years) 64.9 ± 11.4 60.7 ± 12.2 0.97 (0.97–0.97) < 0.001
 20–29 48 (49.0) 50 (51.0) 1   
 30–39 625 (58.0) 452 (42.0) 0.69 (0.46–1.05) 0.084
 40–49 4064 (63.7) 2319 (36.3) 0.55 (0.37–0.82) 0.003
 50–59 10,811 (66.4) 5465 (33.6) 0.49 (0.33–0.72) < 0.001
 60–69 16,251 (81.4) 3715 (18.6) 0.22 (0.15–0.33) < 0.001
 70–79 12,613 (81.3) 2898 (18.7) 0.22 (0.15–0.33) < 0.001
 80–89 4697 (80.5) 1135 (19.5) 0.23 (0.16–0.35) < 0.001
 ≥ 90 384 (84.2) 72 (15.8) 0.18 (0.11–0.29) < 0.001
Region
 Northeast 11,813 (79.5) 3051 (20.5) 1   
 Northern 13,717 (76.1) 4315 (23.9) 1.22 (1.16–1.28) < 0.001
 Central 17,101 (74.0) 6003 (26.0) 1.36 (1.29–1.43) < 0.001
 Southern 6914 (71.5) 2753 (28.5) 1.54 (1.45–1.64) < 0.001
Hospital level
 First level 35,160 (77.2) 10,381 (22.8) 1   
 Middle level 10,668 (71.0) 4362 (29.0) 1.39 (1.33–1.44) < 0.001
 Standard/advance level 3717 (72.9) 1379 (27.1) 1.26 (1.18–1.34) < 0.001
Healthcare coverage
 Universal coverage scheme 36,881 (75.7) 11,866 (24.3) 1   
 Government officer 10,193 (77.3) 2988 (22.7) 0.91 (0.87–0.95) < 0.001
 Social security scheme 1903 (64.9) 1028 (35.1) 1.68 (1.55–1.82) < 0.001
 Others 568 (70.3) 240 (29.7) 1.31 (1.13–1.53) < 0.001
Occupations
 Unemployed/retired 17,809 (79.4) 4629 (20.6) 1   
 Agriculturist 2387 (71.3) 959 (28.7) 1.55 (1.43–1.68) < 0.001
 Private business 17,266 (76.2) 5383 (23.8) 1.20 (1.15–1.25) < 0.001
 Officer 2706 (70.8) 1114 (29.2) 1.58 (1.47–1.71) < 0.001
 Others 9377 (69.9) 4037 (30.1) 1.66 (1.58–1.74) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia
 No 18,345 (74.9) 6151 (25.1) 1   
 Yes 31,200 (75.8) 9971 (24.2) 0.95 (0.92–0.99) 0.010
Diabetes mellitus
 No 43,311 (75.9) 13,728 (24.1) 1   
 Yes 6234 (72.3) 2394 (27.7) 1.21 (1.15–1.28) < 0.001
Gout
 No 45,755 (75.5) 14,829 (24.5) 1   
 Yes 3790 (74.6) 1293 (25.4) 1.05 (0.99–1.12) 0.126
Smoking
 Never 38,552 (76.0) 12,181 (24.0) 1   
 Ex-smoker 5801 (76.1) 1823 (23.9) 0.99 (0.94–1.05) 0.851
 Current smoker 2202 (72.6) 833 (27.4) 1.20 (1.10–1.30) < 0.001
Duration of hypertension (years) 6.6 ± 4.1 6.4 ± 4.0 0.99 (0.98–0.99) < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 85.8 ± 10.6 87.8 ± 11.1 1.02 (1.01–1.02) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 24.6 ± 4.5 25.9 ± 4.9 1.06 (1.06–1.06) < 0.001
 < 25 27,156 (79.6) 6981 (20.4) 1   
 25–29.99 15,227 (73.2) 5570 (26.8) 1.42 (1.37–1.48) < 0.001
 30–34.99 4309 (67.5) 2077 (32.5) 1.88 (1.77–1.99) < 0.001
 ≥ 35 1048 (59.9) 703 (40.1) 2.61 (2.36–2.88) < 0.001
Biochemical measurements
 Serum uric acid (mg/dL) 6.1 ± 1.8 6.2 ± 1.9 1.04 (1.03–1.06) < 0.001
 TC (mg/dL) 192.3 ± 43.1 198.1 ± 49.0 1.01 (1.00–1.01) < 0.001
 TG (mg/dL) 148.8 ± 87.3 157.5 ± 94.6 1.01 (1.00–1.01) < 0.001
 HDL (mg/dL) 50.7 ± 15.8 50.8 ± 15.2 1.01 (1.00–1.01) 0.467
 LDL (mg/dL) 114.0 ± 36.4 118.5 ± 38.1 1.01 (1.00–1.01) < 0.001
Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 70.2 ± 23.2 73.7 ± 24.7 1.01 (1.00–1.01) < 0.001
 ≥ 90 9732 (71.2) 3946 (28.8) 1   
 60–89 19,314 (76.5) 5949 (23.5) 0.76 (0.73–0.80) < 0.001
 30–59 12,974 (79.0) 3444 (21.0) 0.66 (0.62–0.69) < 0.001
 15–29 1274 (77.3) 375 (22.7) 0.73 (0.64–0.82) < 0.001
 < 15 511 (69.9) 220 (30.1) 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 0.469
Number of antihypertensive medications
 0 930 (83.8) 180 (16.2) 1   
 1 20,717 (79.2) 5436 (20.8) 1.36 (1.15–1.60) < 0.001
 2 20,148 (74.1) 7027 (25.9) 1.80 (1.53–2.12) < 0.001
 ≥ 3 7750 (69.0) 3479 (31.0) 2.32 (1.97–2.73) < 0.001
Drug classes (monotherapy)
 ARB 1953 (76.6) 595 (23.4) 1   
 ACEI 5520 (77.1) 1644 (22.9) 0.98 (0.88–1.09) 0.678
 Anti-adrenergic 2060 (78.4) 566 (21.6) 0.90 (0.79–1.03) 0.121
 Diuretics 2697 (80.9) 635 (19.1) 0.77 (0.68–0.88) < 0.001
 CCBs 8301 (81.2) 1921 (18.8) 0.76 (0.68–0.84) < 0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, mmHg millimeter of mercury, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, cm centimeter, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerulus filtration rate, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; anti-adrenergic; alpha and beta blockers, CCBs, calcium channel blockers