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Table 3 Multivariate analysis for factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension among Thai adults with hypertension

From: Prevalence and associated factors of uncontrolled hypertension among hypertensive patients: a nation-wide survey in Thailand

Variables Adjusted odds ratio 95% CI p-value
Gender
 Female 1   
 Male 1.16 (1.10–1.20) < 0.001
Age (years) 0.97 (0.97–0.97) < 0.001
Region
 Northeast 1   
 Northern 1.21 (1.14–1.29) < 0.001
 Central 1.20 (1.13–1.28) < 0.001
 Southern 1.48 (1.38–1.59) < 0.001
Hospital level
 First level 1   
 Middle level 1.23 (1.16–1.30) < 0.001
 Standard/advance level 1.12 (1.03–1.22) 0.009
Diabetes mellitus
 No 1   
 Yes 1.16 (1.08–1.23) < 0.001
Smoking
 Never 1   
 Ex-smoker 1.04 (0.96–1.11) 0.334
 Current smoker 1.08 (0.97–1.19) 0.155
Duration of hypertension (years) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.120
BMI (kg/m2)
 < 25 1   
 25–29.99 1.19 (1.13–1.24) < 0.001
 30–34.99 1.42 (1.32–1.52) < 0.001
 ≥ 35 1.70 (1.51–1.92) < 0.001
LDL (mg/dL)
 < 100 1   
 > 100 1.17 (1.11–1.22) < 0.001
Number of antihypertensive medications
 0 1   
 1 1.39 (1.13–1.70) 0.002
 2 1.80 (1.47–2.20) < 0.001
 ≥ 3 2.32 (1.89–2.86) < 0.001
  1. LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI body mass index
  2. Adjusted for gender, age, regions, hospital levels, diabetes comorbidity, smoking status, duration of hypertension, body mass index, LDL level and number of antihypertensive medications