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Table 3 Factors associated with renal impairment in patients attending HIV clinic at the KBTH

From: Tenofovir-associated renal toxicity in a cohort of HIV infected patients in Ghana

Characteristic Renal impairment N = 63 n,  % No renal impairment N = 237 n,  % Relative risk [95% CI] p-value
Age, mean ± SD, years 45.3 ± 12.15 37.6 ± 10.3 1.04 [1.03–1.06] <0.001
Baseline CrCl rate, median (IQR), mL/min 55.7 [52.4–66.1] 85.7 [66.9–113.2] 0.95 [0.93–0.96] < 0.001
Gender
 Male 18 (28.6) 67 (28.3) 1.01 [0.62–1.64] 0.962
 Female 45 (71.4) 170 (71.7) 1.00  
Smoke tobacco
 Yes 2 (3.2) 9 (3.8) 0.86 [0.24–3.06] 0.810
 No 61 (96.8) 226 (96.2) 1.00  
Alcohol use
 Yes 4 (6.4) 28 (11.8) 0.57 [0.22–1.46] 0.240
 No 59 (93.6) 209 (88.2) 1.00  
WHO HIV stage
 Stage IV 4 (6.3) 48 (20.2) 3.42 [1.16–10.09] 0.026
 Stage III 10 (15.9) 66 (27.9) 3.78 [1.42–10.06] 0.008
 Stage II 39 (61.9) 95 (40.1) 1.71 [0.57–5.16] 0.341
 Stage I 10 (15.9) 28 (11.8) 1.00  
HIV type
 Type II 2 (3.2) 14 (5.9) 0.58 [0.16–2.17] 0.420
 Type I 61 (96.8) 223 (94.1) 1.00  
ART regimen administered
 PI-based 2 (3.2) 7 (3.0) 1.06 [0.31–3.67] 0.927
 NNRTI-based 61 (96.8) 230 (97.0) 1.00  
Baseline CD4 count (cells/mm3)
  < 150 30 (47.6) 104 (43.9) 1.42 [0.83–2.44] 0.200
 150–250 16 (25.4) 42 (17.7) 1.75 [0.96–3.20] 0.068
  > 250 17 (27.0) 91 (38.4) 1.00  
Presence of co-morbidity
 Yes 20 (31.7) 60 (25.3) 1.28 [0.80–2.04] 0.299
 No 43 (68.3) 177 (74.7) 1.00  
On co-medication
 Yes 12 (19.1) 28 (11.8) 1.53 [0.90–2.61] 0.119
 No 51 (80.9) 209 (88.2) 1.00  
Baseline BMI (kg/m2)
  < 18.5 (underweight) 27 (42.8) 25 (10.5) 3.87 [2.49–6.03] < 0.001
  ≥ 25.0 10 (15.9) 44 (18.6) 1.38 [0.71–2.68] 0.340
 18.5–24.9 26 (41.3) 168 (70.9) 1.00  
Adverse event
 Present 12 (19.1) 35 (14.8) 1.27 [0.73–2.19] 0.397
 Absent 51 (80.9) 202 (85.2) 1.00  
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p-value at p < 0.05
  2. ART: Antiretroviral therapy; BMI: body mass index; CI: confidence interval; CrCl; creatinine clearance; IQR: interquartile range; NNRTI: non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; PI: protease inhibitor; SD: standard deviation