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Table 1 Evolutionary trends in the prevalence of anti-HDV antibodies and associated risk factors

From: Evolutionary trends in the prevalence of anti-HDV antibodies among patients positive for HBsAg referred to a national laboratory in Cameroon from 2012 to 2017

Years Variablea Anti-VHD +/Nb Prevalence % (95% CI) pc Crude OR (95% CI) p-value
2012–2017 Gender 0.132   
 Female 22/183 12 (7.6–17.6)   1 (reference)  
 Male 42/243 17.3 (12.7–22.6)   0.654 (0.134–1.14) 0.134
Age groups (years) 0.204   
 < 12 1/11 9.1 (0.22–41.3)   1 (reference)  
 [12–20] 18/108 16.7 (10.2–25.1)   0.814 (0.461–1.439) 0.480
 [21–40] 41/301 13.6 (9.9–18.0)   0.690 (0.394–1.208) 0.218
 > 40 4/6 66.7 (22.3–95.7)   8.852 (1.449–54.074) 0.005
Regions 0.011   
 Center 54/377 14.3 (10.9–18.3)   1 (reference)  
 East 4/10 40 (12.2–73.8)   3.956 (1.084–14.43) 0.037
 Littoral 2/5 40 (5.2–85.3)   0.259 (0.042–1.582) 0.143
 North West 1/2 50 (1.2–98.7)   0.175 (0.011–2.826) 0.219
 South 3/6 50 (11.8–88.2)   5.885 (1.161–29.83) 0.032
 Adamawa 0/1 0
 North 0/2 0
 West 0/20 0
 South West 0/3 0
Years 0.195   
 2012 8/35 22.9 (10.4–40.1)   1 (reference)  
 2013 12/51 23.5 (12.8–37.5)   0.523 (0.257–1.064) 0.074
 2014 7/76 9.2 (3.7–18.1)   1.918 (0.838–4.387) 0.123
 2015 13/89 14.6 (8.0–23.7)   1.042 (0.539–2.016) 0.902
 2016 14/114 12.3 (6.8–19.7)   1.363 (0.722–2.574) 0.340
 2017 10/61 16.4 (8.2–28.1)   0.886 (0.424–1.850) 0.746
2012 Gender 0.286   
 Female 4/12 33.3 (9.9–65.11)   1 (reference)  
 Male 4/23 17.4 (4.9–38.78) 2.375 (0.473–11.92) 0.293
Age groups (years) 0.552   
 [12–20] 2/6 33.3 (4.3–77.72)   1 (reference)  
 [21–40] 5/27 18.5 (6.3–38.08)   0.379 (0.067–2.13) 0.271
 > 40 1/2 50 (1.2–98.74)   3.714 (0.205–67.14) 0.507
Regions 0.156   
 Center 7/33 21.2 (8.9–38.90)   1 (reference)  
 Littoral 1/1 100 (2.5–100)  
2013 Gender 0.633   
 Female 4/20 20 (5.7–43.66)   1 (reference)  
 Male 8/31 25.8 (11.85–44.61) 0.767 (0.196–3.003) 0.703
Age groups (years) 0.250   
 [12–20] 2/7 28.6 (3.66–70.95)   1 (reference)  
 [21–40] 9/42 21.4 (10.29–36.81)   0.563 (0.117–2.706) 0.761
 > 40 1/1 100 (2.5–100)  
Regions    
 Center 12/50 24 (13.06–38.16) 0.575
2014 Gender 0.103   
 Female 1/33 3 (0.777–15.75)   1 (reference)  
 Male 6/43 14 (5.29–27.93) 0.193 (0.02–1.686) 0.137
Age groups (years) 0.777   
 [12–20] 3/20 15 (3.2–37.89)   1 (reference)  
 [21–40] 4/52 7.7 (2.1–18.53)   0.583 (0.12–2.83) 0.452
Regions 0.013   
 Center 5/67 7.5 (2.4–16.56)   1 (reference)  
 South 2/3 66.7 (9.4–99.15)   27.20 (2.089–354.15) 0.012
2015 Gender 0.103   
 Female 3/39 7.7 (1.6–20.87)   1 (reference)  
 Male 10/50 20 (10.03–33.71) 0.33 (0.085–1.307) 0.115
Age groups (years) 0.239   
 < 12 1/1 100 (2.5–100)   1 (reference)  
 [12–20] 3/25 12 (2.5–31.21)   0.917 (0.255–3.290) 0.894
 [21–40] 8/61 13.1 (5.8–24.21)   0.694 (0.205–2.35) 0.431
 > 40 1/2 50 (1.2–98.74)   6.25 (0.366–106.76) 0.206
Regions 0.039   
 Center 11/78 14.1 (7.2–23.83)   1 (reference)  
 East 1/1 100 (2.5–100)  
 North west 1/1 100 (2.5–100)  
2016 Gender 0.477   
 Female 7/47 14.9 (6.2–28.30)   1 (reference)  
 Male 7/67 10.4 (4.3–20.34) 1.55 (0.487–4.604) 0.479
Age groups (years) 0.830   
 [12–20] 5/29 17.2 (5.8–35.77)   1 (reference)  
 [21–40] 8/81 9.9 (4.3–18.5)   0.493 (0.157–1.55) 0.227
 > 40 1/1 100 (2.5–100)  
Regions 0.029   
 Center 11/98 11.2 (5.7–19.19)   1 (reference)  
 East 2/4 50 (6.7–93.24)   8.167 (1.052–63.41) 0.045
 South 1/1 100 (2.5–100)  
2017 Gender 0.120   
 Female 3/22 9.4 (2.9–34.91)   1 (reference)  
 Male 7/29 24.1 (10.29–43.54)   0.325 (0.075–1.402) 0.132
Age groups (years) 0.723   
 [12–20] 3/21 14.3 (3.04–36.34)   1 (reference)  
 [21–40] 7/38 18.4 (7.7–34.32)   0.664 (0.154–2.874) 0.584
Regions 0.114   
 Center 8/51 15.7 (7.02–28.58)   1 (reference)  
 East 1/5 20 (0.5–71.64)   1.306 (0.130–13.08) 0.821
 Littoral 1/1 100 (2.5–100)  
  1. aInformation from available data
  2. b number of tested patients by categories may not sum to total because of missing data; %, percentage of anti-HDV prevalence among HBsAg positive patients; +, positive; N, total
  3. pc, estimated by Chi-squared of Pearson test; p, it is the p value associated with the OR; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval