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Table 2 The dependent variables of interest in this study

From: A research proposal testing a new model of ambulation activity among long-term care residents with dementia/cognitive impairment: the study protocol of a prospective longitudinal natural history study

Variables When measured How measured Reliability and validity
Fall Weekly Medical chart review and a significant event audit [41] Widely used formal analysis of events that affect patient care [41]
The American National Standards System [42]—completed with Staff Interview Widely used industry standard to monitor injuries and illnesses in the workplace; [58, 59] also used by researchers to code fall-related injuries and fall context among older adults with dementia [60]
Acute Medical Conditions (UTI’s, delirium, pneumonia, influenza, other acute illnesses and infections) Weekly except for delirium which will be assessed twice a month Medical chart review
Delirium will be measured by: the short confusion assessment method [27] Inter-rater reliability (0.70–1.00) [61]
kappa = 0.70 [62]
Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) [43] if the short CAM is positive Inter-rater reliability (0.92–0.98) kappa (0.64–0.82) [63]
Spearman correlation with other sedation scales (0.78) [63]