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Table 2 Multivariable analysis of the independent variables with metabolic syndrome among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in ACSH, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia (n = 419)

From: Magnitude of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

Variables Metabolic syndrome Crude OR Adjusted OR
No Yes P-value 95% CI P-value 95% CI
Sex       
 Male 117 91   1   1
 Female 88 123 0.003 1.79 (1.22, 2.64) 0.031 1.94(1.06, 3.54)*
Age    0.00 1.05 (1.03, 1.08) 0.005 1.04 (1.01, 1.07)*
Ethnicity of participant
 Tigray (Ref) 187 208   1   1
 Amara 18 6 0.012 0.3 (0.11, 0.77) 0.1357 0.40 (0.11, 1.42)
Marital status    0.068   0.549  
 Single 14 5   1   1
 Married 164 170 0.045 2.9 (1.02, 8.24) 0.287 2.01 (0.55, 7.32)
 Divorced 12 12 0.12 2.8 (0.76, 10.24) 0.509 1.73 (0.34, 8.79)
 Widowed 15 17 0.008 5.04 (1.52, 16.7) 0.157 2.97 (0.65, 13.50)
Occupation    0.002   0.322  
 Farmer 37 13   1   1
 Merchant 52 58 0.02 3.17 (1.52, 6.62) 0.062 3.36 (0.94, 12.01)
 Government employee 57 58 0.04 2.89 (1.39, 6.01) 0.039 3.88 (1.07, 14.06)
 Daily laborer 14 11 0.119 2.24 (0.82, 6.15) 0.294 2.25 (0.49, 10.24)
 House wife 33 45 0.001 3.88 (1.78, 8.43) 0.073 3.3 (0.89, 12.22)
 Private employee 12 29 0.00 6.87 (2.73, 17.31) 0.027 4.78 (1.19, 19.11)
Residence of participant
 Urban 163 198   1   1
 Rural 42 16 0.00 0.31 (0.17, 0.57) 0.817 1.14 (0.37, 3.45)
Physical exercise
 Yes 60 34   1   1
 No 145 180 0.001 2.19 (1.36, 3.52) 0.048 1.83 (1.05, 3.36)*
Eat fruits in a typical week    0.221   0.027  
 None per week 54 78   1   1
 One times a week 83 77 0.062 0.64 (0.4, 1.02) 0.007 0.41 (0.21, 0.78)*
 Twice a week 42 36 0.07 0.59 (0.34, 1.04) 0.008 0.35 (0.16, 0.76)*
 Three times a week 11 7 0.111 0.44 (0.16, 1.20) 0.088 0.31(0.08, 1.18)
 Four and above a week 15 16 0.449 0.74 (0.36, 1.62) 0.014 0.24 (0.07, 0.75)*
Eat vegetablesin a typical week    0.028   0.068  
 None per week 17 22   1   1
 One times a week 37 21 0.051 0.43 (0.19, 1.05) 0.122 0.42 (0.14, 1.25)
 Twice a week 69 58 0.242 0.65 (0.31, 1.33) 0.345 0.62 (0.23, 1.66)
 Three times a week 28 43 0.672 1.18 (0.53, 2.62) 0.650 1.27 (0.44, 3.65)
 Four and above a week 54 70 0.996 1.02 (0.48, 2.07) 0.718 1.21 (0.43, 3.40)
Any alcoholic drinks
 Yes 31 23   1   1
 No 174 191 0.183 1.48 (0.83, 2.63) 0.611 1.23 (0.54, 2.78)
Ever smoke any tobacco product ever
 Yes 2 6   1   1
 No 203 208 0.191 0.34 (0.68, 1.72) 0.092 0.17 (0.02, 1.33)
Low salt intake
 Yes 148 174   1   1
 No 57 40 0.028 0.59 (0.37, 0.94) 0.344 0.074 (0.41, 1.36)
Body mass index    0.000   0.001  
 Normal weight 147 108   1   1
 Underweight 15 1 0.021 0.91 (0.01, 0.69) 0.089 0.14 (0.01, 1.34)
 Overweight 37 76 0.000 2.79 (1.76, 4.45) 0.001 2.66 (1.50, 4.69)*
 Obese 6 29 0.000 6.58 (2.64, 16.4) 0.018 3.50 (1.23, 9.91)*
Duration of DM    0.000   0.038  
 < 5 years duration 134 84   1   1
 6–10 years duration 46 63 0.001 2.18 (1.37, 3.48) 0.334 1.35 (0.73, 2.50)
 > 10 years duration 25 67 0.000 4.27 (2.5, 7.29) 0.010 2.49 (1.23, 5.01)*
Treatment    0.012   0.073  
 Metformin 70 57   1   1
 Glibenclamide 13 4 0.104 0.38 (0.12, 1.22) 0.156 0.35 (0.08, 1.47)
 Metformin plus glibenclamide 67 70 0.313 1.28 (0.79, 2.08) 0.604 0.84 (0.45, 1.58)
 Insulin plus oral hypoglycemic agents 55 83 0.013 1.85 (1.14, 3.02) 0.148 1.62 (0.84, 3.12)
Family hx of DM
 Yes 33 74   1   1
 No 172 140 0.000 0.36 (0.228, 0.58) 0.047 0.54 (0.29, 0.99)*
Chronic disease
 Yes 70 123   1   1
 No 135 91 0.000 0.38 (0.26, 0.57) 0.001 0.42 (0.25, 0.70)*
  1. N.B; * states significant association, and 1; reference category