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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of associated factors at level-1 demographic health variables with CS N = 17,193

From: Multilevel modelling of factors associated with caesarean section in Ethiopia: community based cross sectional study

Covariates CS n (%)
mean (sd)
All vaginal birth n (%)
mean (sd )
P-value
Religion 0.000
 Orthodox and Catholic 139 (54.29) 2279 (32.85)  
 Protestant 42 (16.41) 1296 (18.68)
 Muslim 74 (28.90) 3250 (46.85)  
 Other 1 (0.39) 112 (1.61)  
Education 0.000
 Not educated 42 (16.41) 4317 (62.23)  
 Primary 85 (33.20) 1857 (26.77)
 Secondary 56 (21.88) 521 (7.51)
 Higher 73 (28.52) 242 (3.49)
Birth order 2.31 (1.83) 3.98 (2.56) 0.000
Preceding birth interval 60.51 (34.98) 40.95 (23.55) 0.000
Multiple pregnancy 0.000
 Single 240 (93.75) 6842 (98.63)
 Multiple 16 (6.25) 160 (1.37)
Place of delivery 0.000
 Home 0 (0%) 1498 (64.5%)  
 Government’s institution 179 (69.9%) 2264 (32.6%)  
 Private Institution 70 (27.3%) 125 (1.8%)  
NGO Institution 7 (2.7%) 54 (0.8%)  
 ANC    0.000
   ≤ 3 61 (23.8%) 4512 (65%)  
   > 3 195 (76.2%) 2425 (35%)  
Size of child 0.001
 Large 104 (40.6%) 2059 (29.7%)  
 Medium 94 (36.7%) 2896 (41.7%)  
 Small 58 (22.7%) 1992 (28.6%)  
Party 0.000
 1 115 (44.9%) 1355 (19.5%)  
 [2–5] 112 (43.8%) 2978 (42.9%)  
 >5 29 (11.3%) 2604 (37.5%)  
Smoking status 0.719
 No 254 (99.22) 6867 (98.99)  
 Yes 2 (0.78) 70 (1.01)
Sex of child    0.328
 Male 140 (54.69) 3578 (51.58)  
 Female 116 (45.31) 3359 (48.42)
History of abortion    0.062
  No 225 (87.89) 6331 (91.26)  
 Yes 31 (12.11) 606 (8.74)
Drugs take for intestinal disease 0.215
 No 232 (90.63) 6478 (93.38)  
 Yes 24 (9.37) 459 (6.62)
 Anemia 0.001
 Sever 2 (0.78) 117 (1.69)  
 Moderate 11 (4.30) 659 (9.50)
 Mild 44 (17.19) 1535 (22.12)
 Not anemic 199 (77.73) 4626 (66.69)
Wealth index 0.000
 Poorest 17 (6.64) 2411 (34.76)  
 Poorer 12 (4.69) 1167 (16.82)
 Middle 13 (5.07) 1015 (14.63)
 Richer 14 (5.47) 903 (13.02)
 Richest 200 (78.13) 1441 (20.77)