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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression analysis of level-1 and level-2 demographic health factors associated with CS, 2016EDHS

From: Multilevel modelling of factors associated with caesarean section in Ethiopia: community based cross sectional study

Covariates Model_1
AOR (95%CI)
Model_2
AOR (95%CI)
Model_3
AOR (95%CI)
Model_4
AOR (95%CI)
Education level (not educated)   1   1
 Primary   1.01 (0.99, 1.02)   1.01 (0.99, 1.02)
 Secondary   1.02 (1.00, 1.03)   1.02 (1.00, 1.03)
 Higher   1.10 (1.07, 1.12)*   1.09 (1.07, 1.12)*
Birth order   1.00 (1.00, 1.00)   1.00 (1.00, 1.00)
Preceding birth interval   1.00 (1.00, 1.00)*   1.00 (1.00. 1.00)*
Child is twin (single)   1   1
Multiple   1.11 (1.08, 1.15)*   1.11 (1.08, 1.15)*
Place of delivery (home)   1   
Government institution   1.04 (1.03, 1.05)*   1.04 (1.03, 1.05)*
Private Institution   1.29 (1.26,1.33)*   1.29 (1.25, 1.32)*
NGO Institution   1.07 (1.03, 1.12)*   1.07 (1.02, 1.12)*
History of abortion (no)     
Yes   1.01 (0.99, 1.02)   1.01 (0.99, 1.02)
ANC (≤ 3)     
 >3   1.01 (1.00, 1.02)   1.01 (1.00, 1.02)
Size of child (large)     
 Medium   0.99 (0.98, 0.99)*   0.99 (0.98, 1.00)*
 Small   0.99 (0.98, 1.01)   0.99 (0.98, 1.01)
Parity (1)     
 [2–5]   0.98 (0.97, 0.99)*   0.98 (0.97, 0.99)*
 >5   0.98 (0.96, 1.00)   0.98 (0.96, 1.00)
Anemic status (sever)   1   1
 Moderate   0.99 (0.96, 1.03)   0.99 (0.96, 1.03)
 Mild   1.00 (0.97, 1.03)   1.00 (0.96, 1.03)
 Not anemic   1.00 (0.96, 1.03)   0.99 (0.96, 1.03)
Household wealth index (poorest)   1   1
 Poorer   0.99 (0.98, 1.00)   0.99 (0.98, 1.00)
 Middle   0.99 (0.97, 1.00)   0.99 (0.97, 0.99)*
 Richer   0.98 (0.97, 0.99)*   0.98 (0.97, 0.99)*
 Richest   1.01 (1.00, 1.03)   1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
Residance (Urban)    1 1
 Rural    0.93 (0.91, 0.94)* 0.98 (0.96, 0.99)*
Region (Tigray)    1 1
 Afar    0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 1.01 (0.98,1.05)
 Amhara    0.99 (0.98, 1.02) 1.00 (0.99,1.02)
 Oromia    0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 1.02 (1.00,1.03)
 Somali    0.98 (0.96, 0.99)* 1.01 (0.99,1.03)
 Benshangul    0.99 (0.97, 1.01) 1.00 (0.98,1.02)
 SNNP    1.005 (0.98, 1.02) 1.01 (0.99,1.03)
 Gambella    0.98 (0.96, 0.99)* 1.02 (1.01,1.04)*
 Hareri    1.07 (1.05, 1.09)* 0.98 (0.96,0.99)*
 Addis Abeba    1.14 (1.11, 1.18)* 1.06 (1.04,1.09)*
 Dire Dewa    1.03 (1.004, 1.05)* 1.08 (1.06,1.11)*
Communities variance (se) 1.064 (0.602) 1.001 (0.17) 1.038 (0.037) 1.002 (0.17)
ICC 24.44% 23.33% 23.98% 23.35%
PCV Ref 5.92% 3.7% 3.5%
Model fit
 log likelihood 2169.56 2540.081 2268.38 2559.534
AIC −4333.119 − 5030.163 − 4510.76 − 5051.068
  1. *Significant at P-value < 0.05