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Table 3 Comparison of pre-, mid-, and post-CBT outcome measure scores

From: Alterations of mental defeat and cognitive flexibility during cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with major depressive disorder: a single-arm pilot study

Scale Pre Mid Post F Pairwise comparisons (p) Condition (Cohen’s d)
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) Pre-post Pre-mid Mid-post Pre-post Pre-mid Mid-post
BDI-II 29.89 (5.76) 26.56 (10.97) 18.89 (10.5) F(2,34) = 11.98** .001 0.454 .011 1.30 .38 .72
MDS 55.61 (19.36) 54.5 (20.43) 38.67 (22.27) F(2,34) = 15.75** .002 1.000 < .001 .81 .06 .74
CFS 31.89 (8.92) 32.78 (7) 39.22 (9.41) F(2,34) = 15.54** < .001 1.000 .002 .80 .11 .78
PHQ-9 15.72 (3.59) 10.72 (5.52) 8.61 (5.03) F(2,34) = 21.68** < .001 .001 .122 1.08 1.07 .29
GAD-7 9.67 (7.56) 7.56 (6.33) 6.33 (4.64) F(1.51,25.63) = 4.56* .064 .295 .356 .74 .48 .27
EQ-5D 0.66 (0.1) 0.66 (0.74) 0.74 (0.12) F(1.45,24.63) = 5.47* .110 1.000 .024 .73 0.00 .76
  1. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni post hoc tests
  2. BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory-II, MDS Mental Defeat Scale, CFS Cognitive Flexibility Scale, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, GAD-7 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, EQ-5D EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, SD standard deviation
  3. * p < .05, ** p < .01