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Table 1 Comparisons of demographic characteristics of participants in the case and control groups

From: Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration is associated with higher pain and disability in subjects with low back pain: a case–control study

VariablesCase group (N = 63)Control group (N = 55)p-value
Age, years49.44 ± 12.7750.02 ± 9.670.784
Sex   
 Male26 (41.26%)29 (52.72%)0.455
 Female37 (58.73%)36 (65.45%)
Education   
 Illiterate/primary school12 (19.04%)16 (29.09%)0.158
 High school22 (34.92%)18 (32.72%)
 College29 (46.03)19 (34.54%)
Job   
 Workless33 (52.38%)24 (43.63%)0.668
 Employed21 (33.33%)27 (49.09%)
 Retired9 (14.28%)4 (7.27%)
Weight (kg)79.92 ± 12.3075.27 ± 10.280.028
Height (cm)165.50 ± 8.48164.01 ± 9.080.336
BMI (kg/m2)29.33 ± 5.0528.10 ± 4.150.151
BMI category   
 Normal15 (23.80%)25 (45.45%)0.527
 Over-weighted29 (46.03%)16 (29.09%)
 Obese19 (30.15%)14 (25.45%)
Waist circumference (cm)93.821 ± 8.7294.9850.522
Hip circumference (cm)108.11 ± 15.99108.67 ± 10.610.819
Waist to hip ratio0.97 ± 0.930.87 ± 0.070.395
BMI   
 Normal15 (23.80%)25 (45.45%)0.527
 Over-weighted29 (46.03%)16 (29.09%)
 Obese19 (30.15%)14 (25.45%)
Physical activity   
 Low43 (68.3%)25 (45.5%)0.008
 Moderate20 (31.7%)27 (49.1%)
 High0 (00.00%)3 (5.5%)
Serum 25(OH) D (ng/ml)   
 < 2027 (42.85%)8 (14.54%)0.001
 20 to 29.914 (22.22%)15 (27.27%)
 ≥ 3022 (34.92%)32 (58.18%)
  1. Values are mean ± SD OR number (%)