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Table 1 Comparison of domains and tests used in each domain

From: Standardization of the Computerized Battery for Neuropsychological Evaluation of Children (BENCI) in an urban setting, in Kenya: a study protocol

BENCI (90 min)Kilifi Toolkit (120 min)
Processing speedSimple reaction time test (a plus sign of the screen prompts the child to press a key on the keyboard fast)
Visuo-motor coordinationVisuo-motor test (involves connection of elements/number in a given sequence)Verbal/visual selective remindingSelf-ordered pointing test—SOPT (Selection of pictures displayed in varying positions on separate sheets in sets of 6, 8, 10, and 12. As each page is turned the subject is required to identify all members of the set, but to point to each item of the set only once. Touching a picture more than once is considered an error)
Sustained attentionContinuous performance test (respondent presses any key every time the required stimulus appears)Auditory sustained and selective attention
Visual sustained and selective attention
Score (the subject is required to place beads on one of two plates only after a special sound is heard on a cassette tape)
People search (a stimulus sheet comprising complete and incomplete stick figures is presented. The subject is required to cross out only complete figures, as quickly as possible)
MemoryVerbal memory test (child listens to some words then repeats the ones remembered)
Verbal memory delayed recall test (the series of words said are repeated after 20 min)
Verbal memory essay of Recognition test (words are read out loud and respondents identifies those that were in the previous list)
Visual memory (series of images are presented after which respondents verbalizes those remembered)
Visual memory delayed essay (the images remembered are said out loud after 20 min)
Visual memory essay of recognition (respondent identifies if images presented were in previous list)
MemoryVerbal memory: verbal list learning—VLL (two lists of 15 items are read out to the child as a shopping list. The first is presented five times and the second only once)
LanguageVerbal comprehension images test (respondent matches images to given conditions)
Verbal comprehension figures (respondent matches geographic shapes to given conditions)
Phonetic fluency (a letter is presented and respondents verbalizes all words that start with the letter given)
Executive functioningWorking memory (a list of color and numbers are said and respondent repeats the numbers then the colors)
Abstract reasoning (respondent completes a logical series by selecting the right element)
Semantic fluency (a category is given and respondents says the elements known in that category)
Inhibition: Go/NO-GO (respondents identifies distinguishing factor between two elements and later identify the distinguishing element)
Flexibility: spatial stroop (respondent matches arrow directions to arrow labels) (two components of spatial stroop—attention shifting task measures flexibility while proper spatial stroop task measures inhibition)
Flexibility: alternate visuo-motor (is flexibility measure that involves two distinct series in which the respondent should connect alternatively)
Planning: attraction park (respondent chooses a number of attractions according to money in hand with each attraction chosen expiring after a given period)
Executive functioningWorking memory: dots (a sheet of eight designs made of dots. The examiner identifies the “special” dot in each design, from a series of one up to eight. The subject is required to point at the special dot. Three trials are administered at each level as required)
Reasoning: colored progressive matrices—CPM (three sets with 12 matrices made of abstract patterns. The subject is asked to complete the matrix by placing one of a choice of four patterns in the empty space)
Attention and attention shift: contingency naming test—CNT (the child is taught a series of rules to name nine drawings displayed in a single series. Each drawing consists of a large outer colored shape and a smaller inner colored shape. Each drawing is named according to the shape or color of one of its two shapes. The rules taught for selecting the name of the item become more complex over four trials)
Planning: tower test (three colored wooden balls are moved between three pegs to match a goal position. Time and number of moves required are recorded)
  1. The units of measurement in the BENCI and Kilifi Toolkit are reaction time (RA), total number of correct answers (CA) and number of moves. Measurement in KABC II is through the Fluid Crystallized Index